Skeletal System Part 1.pdf - Skeletal System Comparative...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 13 pages.

Skeletal SystemComparative Anatomy1Functions of Skeletal SystemFramework of the body (shape)Provides physical support & protection (internalorgans)Muscle attachment & leverage for locomotionStorage of mineral (calcium and phosphorus)Manufacture RBC in bone marrow of long bonesComponents of Skeletal SystemBones/osseus tissue(connective tissues)Cartilage(connective tissues)JointsBoneTypes of Bone According to Shape and SizeLong BonesDivided intodiaphysis (shaft)and epiphysis(extremities)Femur, humerus,tibia-fibula, radius-ulnaShort BonesShort and ofirregular shapesCarpals, tarsals,metatarsals,calcaneumFlat BonesFor protection ofthe soft bodypartsCranium (parietalbones of the skull),ribs, sternum,scapulaIrregularBonesBones ofpeculiar anddiffering shapesVertebrae, sacrum,mandibleTypes of Bone According to StructureSpongy Bone(Cancellous bone)Consist of plates(trabeculae),spaces, and bars ofbone adjacent tosmall, irregularcavities that containred bone marrow.Hematopoiesisoccurs.Compact BoneType of bone withhardenedstructurewith a covering calledperiosteum, andlayers oflamellaesurrounding thehaversian canal.oThis is wherethe haversiancanal system(osteon)oWherecanaliculi, bonelamellae arelocatedIt is rigid and has nospaces unlike spongybone.oNo cavities
Skeletal SystemComparative Anatomy2Types of Bone According to Formation/DevelopmentEndochondralBoneAkacartilage bonethat has undergoneendochondralossification:1.Chondrificationstarts first as acartilage(chondrocyte)2.Ossification/Osteogenesis- the cartilage laterhardens intoosteoblast, a bone-forming cellBones in thelimbsandvertebrae(Atlas, axis, T1-T12, L1-L5,sacrum andcoccyx)IntramembranousBoneMembrane bonethathas undergoneintramembraneossificationwhich isthe direct formation ofbone frommesenchyme cellsinto hard bonesFacial(Frontal, nasal,zygoma,maxilla,mandible) andcranial bones(parietal,temporal,frontal,occipital,ethmoid,sphenoid)Types of Bone According to LocationAxialSituated atmidlinelongitudinal axisof the bodySkull, vertebralcolumn,ribs,sternumAppendicularaway from themidlinelongitudinal axisof the bodyUpper and lowerlimbsOsteocytescomposes the cell bones, inside the lacunaCartilageAre connective tissues that are located inside thelacunaeCartilage cells arechondrocytesAlso found here are the matrix are the cementingsubstances that containschondroitin sulfateCartilages are softer than bones because ofhydroxyapatite crystalsthat makes it more rigidthan the cartilageTypes of Cartilage based on StructureHyalineCartilageMost common among thethreeA precursor of boneFound in the ribs, nose,larynx & trachea (upperrespiratory tract)Elastic CartilageHas elastic yellow fibersFound in pinna of external earFibrocartilageStrongest among the threeHas more collagenous fibersArticulates the bonesFound between twovertebrae: Lumbar vertebraeare connected byintervertebral discmade upof fibrocartilageFound between theconnection of pubic bones inpelvic girdle connecting thetwo pubic (pubicsymphysis).

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 13 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Fall
Professor
N/A
Tags
Vertebra, Bones of the torso

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture