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IR 358 MIDTERM NOTES1.What is Security?2.Anarchy, Power, and the Security Dilemma3.Coercion and War4.Alliances5.Economics and Security6.Nuclear Weapons7.Ethnic Conflict8.Terrorism / Counterterrorism1-WHAT IS SECURITY?Types:Military Security – Economic Security – Societal Security – Environmental SecurityWho Decides:States, International Organizations, Powerful Groups, Individuals-A nation is secure in the extend to which it is not in danger of having to sacrifice core values ifit wishes to avoid war, and is able, if challanged to maintain them by victory in such a war.-Security in objective sense, measures the absence of threats to aquired values, in a subjectivesense, the absence of fear that such values will be attacked. (WOLFERS)-In the case of security, the discussion is about the pursuit of freedom from threat. Security isabout the ability of states and societies to maintain their independent identity and theirfunctional integrity (BUZAN)-Human security can no longer be understood in purely military terms. It must encompasseconomic development, social justice, environmental protection, democratization, respect forHR and the rule of law. (KOFI ANNAN)DESECURIZATION:involves the return of an issue from urgent, securitized situation to the area ofnormal negotiations in political sphere. Making something security issue.POLITICIZATION OF SECURITY: the process of becoming or being made politically aware. Who getswhat, when and whyMEANS:Actions of states + Actions of IO’s + Actions of Groups + Actions of Individuals
Most scholars within International Relations (IR) work with a definition of security that involves thealleviation of threats to cherished values. Defined in this way, security is unavoidably political, that is,it plays a vital role in deciding who gets what, when, and how in world politics (Lasswell 1936)This involves interpreting the past (specifically how different groups thought about and practicedsecurity), understanding the present and trying to influence the future.Security can therefore be thought of as ‘a powerful political tool in claiming attention for priorityitems in the competition for government attention’ (Buzan 1991: 370).Security studies is understood as an area of inquiry loosely focused on a set of basic but fundamentalquestions, the answers to which have changed and will continue to change over time. Security studiescan be crudely summarized as advocating political realism and being preoccupied with the four Ss:states, strategy, science and the status quo.Security was not just about states but related to all human collectivities; nor could it be confined toan ‘inherently inadequate’ focus on military force, as in strategic studies. Buzan’s alternative approachargued that the security of human collectivities (not just states) was affected by factors in five majorsectors, each of which had its own focal point and way of ordering priorities:Military security:concerned with the interplay between the armed offensive and defensivecapabilities of states and states’ perceptions of each other’s intentions. Buzan’s preferencewas that the study of military security should be seen as one subset of security studies andreferred to as strategic studies in order to avoid unnecessary confusion (see Buzan 1987).

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Term
Spring
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
International Relations, United Nations Security Council, Kenneth Waltz

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