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BIOLOGICAL BASES OF BEHAVIORExam 1 ReviewThursday 01/27/22
Anatomy of the Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System(CNS)1. Brain:2. Spinal cordPeripheral Nervous System(PNS)1. cranial/spinal nerves and2. peripheral ganglia
CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMNeuronsSensory:Detect changes in the internal and externalenvironment AKAafferent:carry information from organs to thebrain.Motor:Control muscle contraction and movement AKAefferent:carry information from the brain to the organs.Interneurons:relay informationbetween sensory and motorneurons
CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMGliafound in CNS and support neuronsAstrocytesprovide physical support, and control chemical environment for neuronsConverts glucose to lactate to nourish neuronsActs as “glue” to hold neurons togetherRemove debris via phagocytosisOligodendrocytesProduce the myelin sheath around axons in CNSMicrogliaAct as phagocytesProtect brain from invading organisms (immune system function)
NEURONSSoma (cell body):contains the nucleusprotein synthesis machineryDendrites:Branches that receiveinformation from otherneuronsAxons:branch many timesSendaction potentials from the soma to terminalbuttonsCovered by myeline sheath
NEURONS; BASIC STRUCTURESynapse:A junctionbetween the terminal buttons ofthe presynaptic neuron and thesoma or dendrite of postsynaptic neuron.Neurotransmitter:Chemicalsreleased by a terminal button ofthe presynaptic cell, that has anexcitatory or inhibitory effect onthe postsynaptic cell.Myeline sheath:surroundsaxons and insulates them.Prevent the message fromspreading.Nodes of Ranvier:The naked portion of a myelinatedaxon
NEURON; INTERNAL STRUCTURECell membraneLipid bilayer that defines boundary of cell and controls thetransportation of molecules.Cytoplasm:jellylike fluid containing organellesNucleolus:Produces ribosomes which synthesize protein. Contains genes (long strandsof DNA)Cytoskeleton:Gives the neuron its volume and shape, contains the microtubules, actinfilaments and intermediate filaments.

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Term
Spring
Professor
STAFF
Tags
primary motor cortex, primary auditory cortex

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