BIOLOGICAL BASES OF BEHAVIORExam 1 ReviewThursday 01/27/22
Anatomy of the Nervous System•Central Nervous System(CNS)1. Brain:2. Spinal cord•Peripheral Nervous System(PNS)1. cranial/spinal nerves and2. peripheral ganglia
CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMNeuronsSensory:Detect changes in the internal and externalenvironment AKAafferent:carry information from organs to thebrain.Motor:Control muscle contraction and movement AKAefferent:carry information from the brain to the organs.Interneurons:relay informationbetween sensory and motorneurons
CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMGliafound in CNS and support neuronsAstrocytes•provide physical support, and control chemical environment for neurons•Converts glucose to lactate to nourish neurons•Acts as “glue” to hold neurons together•Remove debris via phagocytosisOligodendrocytes•Produce the myelin sheath around axons in CNSMicroglia•Act as phagocytes•Protect brain from invading organisms (immune system function)
NEURONSSoma (cell body):•contains the nucleus•protein synthesis machineryDendrites:•Branches that receiveinformation from otherneuronsAxons:•branch many times•Sendaction potentials from the soma to terminalbuttons•Covered by myeline sheath
NEURONS; BASIC STRUCTURESynapse:A junctionbetween the terminal buttons ofthe presynaptic neuron and thesoma or dendrite of postsynaptic neuron.Neurotransmitter:Chemicalsreleased by a terminal button ofthe presynaptic cell, that has anexcitatory or inhibitory effect onthe postsynaptic cell.Myeline sheath:surroundsaxons and insulates them.Prevent the message fromspreading.Nodes of Ranvier:The naked portion of a myelinatedaxon
NEURON; INTERNAL STRUCTURECell membraneLipid bilayer that defines boundary of cell and controls thetransportation of molecules.Cytoplasm:jellylike fluid containing organellesNucleolus:Produces ribosomes which synthesize protein. Contains genes (long strandsof DNA)Cytoskeleton:Gives the neuron its volume and shape, contains the microtubules, actinfilaments and intermediate filaments.