Rosenthall psych 150

Rosenthall psych 150 - Psychological Reports, 1966, 19,...

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1 Psychological Reports, 1966, 19, 115-118. Teachers’ Expectancies: Determinants Of Pupils’ IQ Gains 1 Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson Harvard University South San Francisco Unified School District Summary — Within each of 18 classrooms, an average of 20% of the children were reported to classroom teachers as showing unusual potential for intellectual gains. Eight months later these “unusual” children (who had actually been selected at random) showed significantly greater gains in IQ than did the remaining chil- dren in the control group. These effects of teachers’ expectancies operated prima- rily among the younger children. 1 Experiments have shown that in behavioral research employing human or animal Ss, E’s expect- ancy can be a significant determinant of S’s response (Rosenthal, 1964, in press). In studies employing animals, for example, E’s led to believe that their rat Ss had been bred for superior learning ability obtained performance superior to that obtained by Es led to believe their rats had been bred for inferior learning ability (Rosenthal & Fode, 1963; Rosenthal & Lawson, 1964). The present study was designed to extend the generality of this finding from Es to teachers and from animal Ss to school children. 2 Flanagan (1960) has developed a nonverbal intelligence test (Tests of General Ability or TOGA) which is not explicitly dependent on such school learned skills as reading, writing, and arith- metic. The test is composed of two types of items, “verbal” and “reasoning.” The “verbal” items measure the child’s level of information, vocabulary, and concepts. The “reasoning” items mea- sure the child’s concept formation ability by employing abstract line drawings. Flanagan’s pur- pose in developing the TOGA was “to provide a relatively fair measure of intelligence for all individuals, even those who have had atypical opportunities to learn” (1960, p. 6). 3 Flanagan’s test was administered to all children in an elementary school, disguised as a test designed to predict academic “blooming” or intellectual gain. Within each of the six grades in the school were three classrooms, one each of children performing at above average, average, and below average levels of scholastic achievement. In each of the 18 classes an average of 20% of the children were assigned to the experimental condition. The names of these children were given to each teacher who was told that their scores on the “test for intellectual blooming” indicated that they would show unusual intellectual gains during the academic year. Actually, the children had
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Rosenthall psych 150 - Psychological Reports, 1966, 19,...

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