African History (2nd half) final notess

African History (2nd half) final notess - 1 Meaning of...

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1 Meaning of Islam to first Global Economy and Africa? -traditionalist views of Islam are hostile. This  active animosity  comes from the crusades, and still  plagues how Islam is interpreted by the west. Eurocentric view of Islam : -acknowledge it’s rise from the 7 th  century, rise of Mohammad and military process -acknowledge formation of unitary system of law  the Sharia -acknowledge that it shares the same foundations, heritage as Judaism and Christianity >However according to Eurocentric view, from the 10 th  Century Muslim societies stopped  progressing, degenerated. Saw Islam as failing Muslim societies, depriving them of economic  success where as Christianity and Judaism allowed for progressive economies: Emergence of individualism, emergence of entrepreneurship and of the profit motive which rise  occurred in west and allowed west to progress    >In contrast in Muslim societies religion continued to dominate political structures and  economy. Did not permit for emergence of individualism, entrepreneurship or profit motive. -In muslim societies the religion did not allow interest to be charged on loans etc., originally a  rule from the old testament which jews and christians dropped. Also, all profits went back to  schools and charities in muslim societies. from Eurocentric viewpoint, the enterprises that muslims were involved in were heinous  activities, such as the slave trade, as well as tried to monopolize spice trade. Eurocentric view is that it took Europeans to break down the barriers of economic development  in Muslim Society.     >1. ie. 1500 portugese sailed around Cape of Good Hope, attacked Muslim Spice Trading  economy       2. Huge rise in Christian missionary activity       3. Wave of modern colonization: western political power imposed on Indian Ocean World REVISIONIST look: -at the time of Mohammad (570 CE) the IOW trade routes were being contested by Byzantines  and another group ** two factors tipped in favour of muslims: 1. Cost of empire virtually unbearable for Byzantines, as they’d overextended themselves. Also,  repetition of plague disseminating over popular centres of IOW > rapid depopulation, collapse of  trade/ production. Produced major crisis of religious ideology > proved favourable to Mohamad  and early Muslims who were relatively untouched by plague
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2  Strategic expansions for muslims, virtually no stopping muslim armies, expanded very rapidly  eventually controlling a huge empire. 1 st  expansion allowed capture of routes around Red Sea  and Persian Gulf. 2 nd  took part of the Silk Road Muslim Institutions If we examine Islamic Institutions, we see that they actually promote economic advance
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course HIST 200 taught by Professor Gwyncampbell during the Fall '07 term at McGill.

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African History (2nd half) final notess - 1 Meaning of...

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