Lecture 3

# Lecture 3 - Lecture 3 Galileo Galilei 1565 1643Father of...

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Lecture 3 Galileo Galilei: 1565- 1643“Father of Experimental Science” Took Science from the “HOW” to the“ WHY” and WHY comes from EXPERIMENTATION Galileo DID NOT invent the telescope – Inventors of the 1 st telescopes (primitive)?????? Galileo Quotes: “ I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who endowed us with a sense of reason and intellect intended us to forgo their use” “The laws of nature are written in the language of mathematics…………. .the symbols are triangles, circles without whose help it is impossible to comprehend a single word” In 1610 ,Galileo was appointed as court mathematician and philosopher In 1633,Galieo was put on trial for Heresy by the Catholic Church (what does the term Catholic mean?) The Charges : The Copernican Heliocentric theory of the Solar System At trial he made this statement, when asked about the Bible and his belief in “going to heaven” “The Bible shows us how to get to Heaven; NOT to Heaven go” He was convicted, BUT………not executed;he had a very good

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reputation in his hometown and He was put under house arrest for the remainder of his life He was then forced to say “The Earth does not move” However, as he marched home was heard to reply “Still it moves” He continued to work at home performing experiments, mentoring many students and corresponding regularly with other scientists Greatest work “RATE OF FALL OF AN OBJECT” (What is the difference between a scalar and vector property?) Acceleration: a = v f – v i /t f= final velocity i = initial Velocity: v = d/t Speed: s= d/t distance unit = meter Time unit = second Speed and velocity are used interchangeably in this course, BUT not same Speed does not indicate direction Velocity is speed in a direction RATE of FALL Galileo constructed his “FAMOUS INCLINE” BIG QUESTION: What rules govern the velocity and acceleration of falling objects????Gravity (force) known but not named until Newton ANSWER: velocity = g x t g (gravity) = 9.8m/s 2 1 st second object falls, accelerates at 9.8m/s; 2 nd second v doubles; 3 rd second v triples etcuntil terminal velocity is achieved (t v covered later in course) ALL ABOVE IN THE ABSENCE OF FRICTION called ?????
So, Earth’s gravitational acceleration is 9.8m/s 2 a= v f – v i / t SPEED = m/s (meter per second) and v = d/t How is a second measured and defined? The time it takes for 9,192,631,770 periods of microwave radiation to be able to transfer the cesium – 133 atom from low energy state to a higher energy state ( more about energy states and electromagnetic spectrum in section on Chemistry) The atomic clock is????? Sir Issac Newton 1643-1727 Born Lincolnshire, England; died in London ,England and Born to “Gentry” What was the defining occurence in Issac Newton’s life????????????????? Who was responsible for encouraging Sir Issac to attend the

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Lecture 3 - Lecture 3 Galileo Galilei 1565 1643Father of...

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