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Final Science Exam

Final Science Exam - Be able to answer any multiple choice...

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Be able to answer any multiple choice, true/false, and fill in the black questions about the following: 1. Atmosphere flow chart 2. Primary and Secondary Succession 1. PRIMARY SUCCESSION: WEATHERING OF ROCK TO MAKE SOIL 2. SECONDARY SUCCESSION: ECOSYSTEM RECOVERY OVER TIMEONLY IF A BIOLOGICAL REMNANT OF A FORMER ECOSYSTEM EXISTS PRIMARY SUCCESSION BEGINS WITH THE ROCK CYCLE: Three Types of ROCKS 1. Igneous ( Latin: fire) 2. Sedimentary ( Latin: settling) 3. Metamorphic (Greek: changed form) 1. IGNEOUS; Formed from molten LAVA when cooled Types of Igneous: 1. Extrusive 2. Intrusive
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**EXTRUSIVE: (Latin: thrust out) formed from cooled LAVA called BASALT **Basalt makes up most of the ocean floor ***Basalt also found on Mars and Moon Basalt : very fine mineral crystals due to quick cooling Cooling very fast and occasionally crystals do NOT form And this forms igneous called OBSIDIAN and PUMICE : very porous due to trapped gas bubbles when cooling INTRUSIVE: ( LATIN : FORCED IN) formed from cooled magma called GRANITE GRANITE: Coarse grained taking much longer time to cool See GRANITE above ground only because original coverings eroded and weathered away CONTINENTAL CRUST MAINLY GRANITE. 2. SEDIMENTARY ROCK originates from “fragments” of other rock due to weathering and then carried elsewhere and deposited Layers of these fragments harden into SEDIMENTARY ROCK TYPES of SEDIMENTARY ROCK 1. SHALE: layers of sediment “squeezed” together by the weight of material above (mud, clay) and the fragments are cemented together by WATER 2. SANDSTONE:minerals cement deposits of sand under pressure ( ex: Brownstone building material in Eastern US) 3. Gypsum: forms from minerals left behind after a body of water evaporates(ex:White Sands National Monument in New Mexico) 4. LIMESTONE: remains of animals and plants TYPE of Limestone: CHALK formed from shells of very small marine organisms 3. METAMORPHIC ROCK; forms when IGNEOUS and SEDIMENTARY rock are buried deep in the Earth’s surface Heat and or chemical reactions from nearby magma produces changes and forms metamorphic rock Also pressure from overlying rocks form Metamorphic rock TYPES OF METAMORPHIC MARBLE: forms from limestone SANDSTONE: from quartzite SLATE: from shale Primary Sucession THEN DEVELOPS BIOTIC COMMUNITIES IN A BARREN HABITAT AND PROCEEDS SLOWLY UNTIL TOPSOIL IS SUFFICIENT FOR GROWTH 1. THE 1ST SPECIES ARE THE PIONEER SPECIES; MICROBES, MOSSES, LICHENS( SYMBIOSIS OF FUNGI AND AN ALGAE
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2. SMALL HERBS, SMALL SHRUBS 3. HEATH MAT (GROUND COVER) 4. PINE, ASPEN, SPUCE 5. CLIMAX COMMUNITY OF BIRCH, FIR, WHITE SPRUCE SECONDARY SUCCESSION BEGINS WHEN THE ECOSYSTEM HAS BEEN DESTOYED OR DISTURBED AND A REMNANT OF PREVIOUS BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITY REMAINS TIME LINE ~ 150 YRS 1. ANNUAL INDIGENOUS PLANTS (OFTEN CALLED WEEDS BUT NO SUCH TERM AS A WEED,INDIGENOUS OR NATIVE PLANT) 2. PERENNIAL GRASSES AND NATIVEPLANTS 3. SHRUBS 4. YOUNG PINE 5. MATURE OAK-HICKORY CLIMAX FOREST MATURE FOREST;(In our area) Ridge and Valley(southernmost) to Piedmont region of Georgia Levels of a Mature Forest
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