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Unformatted text preview: Pgs. 377-382 Canada has consistently enjoyed a lesser rate of violence than the United States, but in recent years, youth violence in larger cities like Toronto has increased. More than 1 in 5 twelve year olds are repeatedly either bullies, victims or both (Junoven et al., 2003) Wendy Craig and others (2000) set up video cameras in medium sized schools and saw that bullying occurred at a rate of 4.5 episodes an hour, while another study suggests that at least 75% of adolescents have been bullied at school (Peterson, 1999). Such bullying has been found to leave children with feelings of panic or nervousness in school, and can result in suicidal behavior, depression and poor mental health (Carney, 2000; Rigby, 2000; West & Salmon, 2000). These side effects are mostly felt by those children with low self esteem. Aggression takes root in many forms: o Road Rage o Desk/Office Rage o Hazing o Sports Arguments What is Aggression? o Aggression can be a very vague word that covers a lot of territory. Researchers have come up with over 250 different definitions of aggression, but they share common features. o Aggression, is operationally defined as behavior intended to harm another individual Therefore, accidental injury is not considered aggression. Failed acts of aggression are still considered aggressive because the intent was there Theres a difference between aggression and assertion. (A pushy salesperson is considered assertive, not aggressive) o Aggressive behavior can be in the form of words, actions, or absence of actions (refusing to prevent harm from occurring to another person.) Extreme acts of aggression are called violence, and the emotion of aggression is called anger. Hostility is a negative, antagonistic attitude toward another person or group. Anger and hostility are often closely connected to aggression, but not always. Aggression can occur without anger or hostility, such as when people kill complete strangers for money. Two types of aggression: o Instrumental aggression: Inflicting harm in order to obtain something of value. (Harming someone for personal gain, attention or even self-defense) o Emotional Aggression: Inflicting harm for its own sake. (Usually impulsive, but can also be cool and calculated) Some scholars believe that all aggression is fundamentally instrumental, serving some need, and still others suggest that instrumental and emotional aggression are not distinct categories but endpoints on a continuum (Anderson 2004a; Anderson & Huesmann, 2003; Tedeschi & Bond, 2001). Not all groups of people are the same in their aggressive tendencies. There is cultural variation.Not all groups of people are the same in their aggressive tendencies....
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSYC 215 taught by Professor Michaelsullivan during the Spring '08 term at McGill.
- Spring '08
- Social Psychology