Chapter 42 - Chapter 42 Immunology Animal Defense Systems...

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Chapter 42: Immunology; Animal Defense Systems Vaccine-an inactive form of a pathogen or toxin that nevertheless provokes the immune system to produce antibodies; specific proteins directed against the target What are the major defense systems of Animals? Pathogens-harmful organisms and viruses that can cause disease Response involves three phases: o Recognition phase (recognizing between self and nonself), activation phase (recognition leads to mobilization of cells to fight invasion), and effector phase (destruction of invader) Two general types of defense mechanisms: o Innate- first line of defense, nonspecific, quick (min. or hours). Skin recognizes, phagocytic cells ingest invaders. o Adaptive defense- aimed at specific pathogens, and activated by innate immune system. Can make an antibody protein that will recognize, bind, and destroy specific virus o Having both innate and adaptive defense is characterized by vertebrates Blood and lymph tissues play an important role in defense o The lymphoid tissues (thymus[T-cells mature], bone marrow[B-cells mature], spleen[filters circulating blood], lymph nodes[lymph is filtered and inspected for pathogens by white blood cells]) are essential o Blood plasma-contains lots of iron, small molecule solutes, and soluble proteins (plasma vs. red blood cells, lighter). Suspended within plasma are red/white blood cells and platelets. o Lymph-fluid derived from blood (w/o red blood cells); accumulates in intercellular spaces throughout the body. It moves into the vessels of lymphatic system, then to larger ducts that eventually join to form the thoracic duct near the heart. Along the lymph vessels are lymph nodes (containing white blood cells called lymphocytes, used as defense) While the lymph passes through a node, the lymphocytes check it for foreign molecules, and attack if needed o White blood cells play many defensive roles Many more red blood cells than white (leukocytes) They originate as multipotent stem cells, continuously dividing in the bone marrow Two families: Lymphocytes-include B and T cells; smaller than others, and do not perform phagocytosis
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o B lymphocytes -adaptive response; differentiate to form ANTIBODIES o T lymphocytes – adaptive response; kill virus- infected cells or cancer cells and regulate activities of other white blood cells by secreting cytokines Phagocytes-includes Basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells monocytes, macrophage, dendritic cells, natural killer cells o Innate and Adaptive Ones: Basophils- release histamine and help develop T cells Monocytes- develop into macrophages and dendritic cells Macrophages - engulf and digest microorganisms; activate T cells by releasing cyotkines o Just adaptive: Eosinophils- kill anti-body coated parasites?
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