Plant Diversity - Plant Diversity-Ch 29 If you were going...

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Plant Diversity-Ch. 29 If you were going from ocean life to living on land: Need greater ability for fast gas exchange from the air Anchorage, holding it up against gravity Internal transport system Muscle and nerves that trigger response to stimuli Resistance against drying out All green plant characteristics: Cholorophyll a and b, starch (storage molecule), cellulose (cell wall) Only in land plants characteristics: Alternation of generations Spores, sporopollenin, Apical meristems Plasmodesmata Things that allowed a plant to be successful: Vascular tissue- can hold them up and distribute fluids Having leaves-more efficient photosynthesis Roots- uptake of water, minerals Seeds- VERY important to know the next generation will survive Having Flowers All Land plants have two distinct cellular bodies One performs fertilization one performs meiosis sporophyte- the generation that makes spores [diploid] o Which is the products of meiosis Gametophyte-the generation that makes gametes [haploid] o Develops from the spores, that were produced from sporophyte Alternation of generations varies between vascular and nonvascular plants o Nonvascular plants: They don’t produce seeds, no flowers, no vascular tissue Ex. Mosses, liverworts, hornworts Not very differentiated. Flat sheet of cells, all cells doing photosynthesis Any movement of materials through the plant body tends to be through diffusion. Very small They have dominant Gametophytes, very little sporophyte The sporophyte in this group is called “ephemeral”, meaning they are only briefly photosynthetic. The sporophyte is mostly not green, so it mainly depends on the gametophyte Even the gametophyte has a very simple body Only a few cells thick, no seeds, nothing. Just cells that do photosynthesis, meiosis, and fertilization
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o Vascular Plants: Tracheids (transport cells), are rigid, so they can move water over long distances, and allow for the plant to be bigger, and provides structural support Dominant sporophytes, most have true roots, some reproduce with seeds Primitive vascular plants: Stem only, no leaves, no roots They had rhizoids, which were like unground stems Identifying feature, the stem branches at the tip. Like split ends in hair, and this is called dichotomous They reproduce by producing spores in sporangia (tips at ends) If there aren’t any leaves, how is this a plant? Originally, the stems were the photosynthetic part, so leaves developed latter o 2 origins of leaves: o flattened, sterile sporangia microphylls (derived from the sterilization of a reproductive structure) o the better way to evolve a leaf was the production of megaphylls o this is where the split ends, become unequal splitting, and one gets bigger than the other. The overtopping of the split becomes a stem, and the smaller side piece is the lateral branch, and this fuse together. Becomes megaphyll [true leaves] ex. Lycophytes: o
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