09/23/2015 Humans: Anatomy and Behavior

09/23/2015 Humans: Anatomy and Behavior - ● young primate...

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Humans: Anatomy and Behavior 09/23/2015 What makes us Human? 1. Brain size 2. language 3. Tool size 4. Culture 5. Bipedalism Speech vs. Language Language: system of communication spoken written sign language Speech: vocal sounds (Brain) Broca’s area: speech production (Brain) Wernicke’s area: language comprehension → Vervets: symbolic communication → Chimpanzees: sign language Tool Use → Chimpanzee: termite fishing in Gombe → Orangutan: use sticks in wild to pry open fruit → Capuchin monkeys: use large stones to open nuts Culture transmission of knowledge, behavior from one generation to another
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Unformatted text preview: ● young primate watch mother (learning) → Japanese Macaque: potato washing Bipedalism → human: habitual bipeds → non-human primates: facultative bipeds ● femur is angled ● femoral head enlarged ● shorter broader pelvis ● lesser gluteal muscle on side of hip ● enlarged lumbar vertebrae ● “S” shaped vertebral column ● rigid foot, enlarged heel bone ● toes aligned, big toe enlarged Sexual Dimorphism Male and Female Ratio Male : Female Humans 1.15 : 1 Chimpanzees 1.36 : 1 Gibbons 1 : 1 Gorilla 2 : 1...
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