Chapter 18 The Early 18th Century in Itay & France

Chapter 18 The Early 18th Century in Itay & France -...

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Dorothy Chung 4/14/16 Chapter 18 The Early 18th Century in Italy & France Europe in a Century of Change Realignment and revolution Balance of power among strong centralized states France: biggest army Louis XIV’s lavish spending depleted the treasury 1607: Britain → union of England and Scotland Austro-Hungarian Empire: increasingly influential 1701: Prussia → a kingdom Prussia, Russia, and Austria divided Poland’s territories American Revolution (1775–83); French Revolution (1789) Economic expansion after 1750 Improved agricultural methods, growing food supply Manufacturing and trade more lucrative; growing urban middle class Continent more urbanized, nature idealized Education and learning New schools founded for governmental elite and middle classes 1702: London, daily newspapers Novels became popular literature Enlightenment: Voltaire (1694–1778), analyze social and political issues through reason and science Demand for new music Growth of middle class, broadening education Expanding markets: printed music, instruments, teachers, performers Changing styles Baroque and Classic styles overlapped Changes in audiences and venues Debates between partisans of “new” and “old” styles Music in Italy Principal centers: Naples, Rome, and Venice Wealthiest patrons, most developed musical life Attracted renowned and original composers Opera most prestigious; instrumental music gained ground Naples 1734: Independent kingdom Four conservatories: homes for orphaned and poor boys Specialized in teaching music Book on paying students Pupils made careers all over Europe; spread Italian music across Continent Castrati Many conservatory students were castrati
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Late seventeenth century, leading male roles in opera Increased lung capacity; powerful, agile voices Carlo Broschi (1705–1782), known as Farinelli: international superstar Opera Alessandro Scarlatti, leading composer New serious Italian emerged, 1720s; codified by librettist Pietro Metastasio (1698–1782) Comic and serious operas standard practice Alternating recitatives and da capo arias Rome Rich patrons sponsored academies Performed cantatas, serenatas, sonatas, concertos Training ground for performers Attracted instrumentalists from all over Italy and Germany Virtuosos: Francesco Geminiani (1687–1762), Pietro Locatelli (1695–1764); spread Italian style to other regions Venice Declining in political power; remained most glamorous city in Europe Travelers spread its influence across Europe Wide variety of music Musicians sang on streets and canals Amateurs played and sang in private academies Public festivals, occasions of musical splendor Never fewer than six opera companies Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741)
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