Lesson4 - 2013 JKUAT SODeL JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF...

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JKUAT SODeL 2013 JJ II J I J Doc Doc I Back Close JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF OPEN, DISTANCE AND eLEARNING P.O. Box 62000, 00200 Nairobi, Kenya E-mail: [email protected] SZL 2111: HIV/AIDs LAST REVISION ON May 10, 2013
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JKUAT SODeL 2013 JJ II J I J Doc Doc I Back Close This presentation is intended to covered within one week. The notes, examples and exercises should be supple- mented with a good textbook. Most of the exercises have solutions/answers appearing elsewhere and accessible by clicking the green Exercise tag. To move back to the same page click the same tag appearing at the end of the solu- tion/answer. Errors and omissions in these notes are entirely the re- sponsibility of the author who should only be contacted through the Department of Curricula & Delivery (SODeL) and suggested corrections may be e-mailed to [email protected] .
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JKUAT SODeL 2013 JJ II J I J Doc Doc I Back Close SZL 2111 HIV/AIDs LESSON 4 Biology of HIV Learning outcomes By the end of this topic you should be able to; To know the nature of HIV Describe the structure of HIV Understand the Life cycle of HIV JKUAT: Setting trends in higher Education, Research and Innovation 1
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JKUAT SODeL 2013 JJ II J I J Doc Doc I Back Close SZL 2111 HIV/AIDs 4.1. Nature of HIV HIV can’t grow or reproduce on its own. It requires cell of living organisms to infect & reproduce. HIV is specific to CD4+ cells in the human body i.e. cells with surface molecule called Cluster of Differentiation 4. Cells carrying this molecule are called CD4+ cells. Therefore HIV cant survive in the animal blood, because its only human blood that contains CD4+cells. HIV is a lentivirus. Like all viruses in this group it attacks the immune system. Lentiviruses are in turn part of a larger group of viruses called retroviruses. The term ”retrovirus”stems from the fact that these kinds of viruses are capable of copying RNA into DNA. The name lentivirus means slow virus. This is because they take such a longtime to produce any adverse effects in the body. JKUAT: Setting trends in higher Education, Research and Innovation 2
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JKUAT SODeL 2013 JJ II J I J Doc Doc I Back Close SZL 2111 HIV/AIDs 4.2. The Structure of HIV Outside of a human cell, HIV exists as roughly spherical par- ticles (sometimes called virions). The surface of each particle is studded with lots of little spikes. An HIV particle is around 100-150 billionths of a meter in diameter. That’s about the same as 0.1 microns or 4 millionths of an inch or one seventieth of the diameter of a human CD4+ white blood cell. Unlike most bac- teria, HIV particles are much too small to be seen through an ordinary microscope. However they can be seen clearly with an electron microscope.
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