chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Psychosocial Development in Early...

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Chapter 8: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood 1. The Developing Self Self-concept development-total picture of abilities and traits. Evident when children gain in cognitive abilities & deals with tasks of childhood, adolescence and adulthood Toddlerhood- develop self-awareness Sense of self-social aspect-children incorporate how others see them into their self-image Children’s self-definition- way they describe themselves- changes from 5 to 7 (3 steps), reflecting self-concept development 4-1 st step-single representations-statements about himself are one-dimensional (I like pizza, I am strong”), jumps from one thought to the next, without logical connection Can’t imagine two emotions at once (happy and scared)/consider different aspects of himself at same time Child-himself as either all or nothing, can’t acknowledge real self-the person he is, is not same as ideal self-the person he wants to be ex. virtue, ability 5-6-2 nd step-representational mapping-logical connections between one aspect of himself and another (strong, throw ball, make team) Image-positive-all or nothing-can’t see how he is good at some things/not others 3 rd step-representational systems-middle childhood-children integrate specific features of self into general, multidimensional concept, all/nothing declines, self-descriptions-balanced/realistic (good at hockey, bad at math) Self-esteem-self-evaluate part of self-concept, children judge overall worth Before 5-7-self-esteem not based on reality, accept positive, uncritical feedback given by adults- overrate abilities Early childhood- self-esteem is all/none (I’m good/bad) Middle childhood-more realistic, personal evaluation of competence based on parental/societal standards shape self-worth How helpless pattern arises Self-esteem contingent on success-children view failure/criticism reflection of worth and feel helpless to do better Instead of trying different way to do puzzle, helpless children feel ashamed/give up, don’t expect to succeed so don’t try Children believe they’re helpless to change, repeat unsuccessful strategies/ give up instead of try new ways to gain approval Noncontingent self-esteem- persevere & if unsuccessful try new strategies until one works Two developments in understanding of emotions Ability to understand & control one’s feelings are sensitive to how others feel-key advances of early childhood Emotional self-regulation- children guide behavior/contributes to ability to get along with others Preschoolers talk about their feelings/can detect feelings of others, understand emotions connected with experiences/desires, someone who gets what he wants will be happy/someone who doesn’t will be sad Understanding Conflicting Emotions- younger children’s confusion about feelings-don’t understand they can experience contrary emotions at once
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Individual differences in understanding conflicting emotions-evident by 3. Children are more
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