chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Physical and Cognitive Development...

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Chapter 11: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 1. Adolescence: A Developmental Transition Modern societies- adol.-developmental shift involves physical, cognitive, emotional, social change/vary in different social, cultural, economic settings Physical change-onset of puberty, leads to sexual maturity, fertility-ability to reproduce Adol. is social construct-no concept in preindustrial society Adol.-chance for growth: physical, cognitive, social, autonomy, self-esteem, intimacy-adol. with supportive connection-parents, school, community develop in positive, healthful way Risky behavior common in U.S. adol.: face hazard to physical/mental well-being, high death rate from accident, homicide Recent survey-students less likely: alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, ride in car without seat belt, ride with drunk driver, carry weapons, to have intercourse or without protection, suicide 2. Puberty Puberty-increase gonadatropin releasing hormone in hypothalamus lead rise 2 reproductive hormones: luteinizing & follicle-stimulating hormone Puberty (2 stages)-1. Activate adrenal glands 2. Maturing of sex organs few years later 1 stage-6-8-adrenal glands above kidney secrete androgens, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone- growth of pubic, axillary (underarm), facial hair, faster body growth, oiler skin, body odor 2 nd stage-girls ovaries increase estrogen-growth of female genitals, breasts, pubic/underarm hair/boys-testes more androgens (testosterone)-growth-male genitals, muscle mass, body hair Amount of body fat needed for reproduction-girls with more % of body fat in early childhood/those that gain weight 5-9 show early puberty Studies-buildup of leptin, hormone linked with obesity-link body fat/early puberty-cause pituitary/sex glands to increase secretion of hormones-more in girls than boys Primary sex char.-sex organs vital for reproduction-female-ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, clitoris, vagina/male-testes, penis, scrotum, seminal vesicle, prostate gland-pub. enlarge/mature Secondary sex char.-physiological signs of sexual matur.-don’t directly involve sex organs Examples: breasts, broad shoulders, voice change, skin texture, pubic, facial, axillary, body hair Girls-1 st external sign of puberty typ. are breast tissue, pubic hair-nipples enlarge/protrude, areolae enlarge, breasts are conical, then round shape Boys-enlargement of testes, some have temp. breast enlargement-normal Pubic hair- 1 st straight/silky then coarse, dark, curly-appears in different patterns in boys/girls Voice deepens esp. boys-growth of larynx/production of male hormones, skin oilier-increased activity of sebaceous glands acne common in boys (more testosterone) Adol. growth spurt-rapid increase in height, weight, muscle, bone growth Girls’ growth spurt occurs 2 years earlier than boys-girls 11-13 taller, heavier, stronger than boys same age-after boys growth spurt, they are larger Boys/girls grow differently in rate, form, shape
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