Lab 1 Protocol - BIOLOGY 310L Genetics Laboratory Lab 1...

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BIOLOGY 310L: Genetics Laboratory Lab 1. Mitosis and Meiosis Introduction. One of the tasks of eukaryotic chromosomes is to duplicate themselves so that precise copies are distributed to the next generation of cells in an orderly fashion. For somatic cells, the process in which chromosomes duplicate and divide is called mitosis. In reproductive cells, which give rise to haploid gametes, a double round of chromosomal and cell division is called meiosis. This laboratory session will concentrate on the physical appearance of cells undergoing mitosis or meiosis by using the microscope to examine both plant and animal specimens. The goals of this session are: 1) to review correct use of the compound microscope; 2) to view the radically different shapes and locations that chromosomes assume in different parts of the cell cycle; 3) to relate these chromosomal shapes and locations to the biological activity occurring at that point in a cell; 4) to prepare simple and correct illustrations and video images of the mitotic and meiotic specimens This session will be divided into three parts. The first part will review basic procedures for using the compound microscope. The second part entails microscopic observations of mitosis in onion root tips and in whitefish blastulas. Data from onion root tip observations will be recorded by pencil drawing; computerized videomicroscopy will be used to record selected whitefish mitotic cells. In the third part, prepared animal testes slides will be examined for major meiotic phases. Materials. Prepared slides: onion ( Allium ) root tip whitefish ( Leucichthys ) blastula animal testes (grasshopper, mouse, frog, or rabbit) Procedures. 1. Microscopy . The lab lecture will review these points: focusing the condenser and eyepieces; setting interpupillary distances; setting correct illumination; care of lenses; and correct posture. The lecture will also review basic points regarding illustrations of microscopic specimens: a) label each diagram with the name of the specimen, viewing magnification, and date; b) using stippling, not shading, to indicate “dark” or densely-stained areas; c) draw a line only where you see a line.
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