04-Design - Design Civ E 270 Khattak N The Design Process...

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Design Civ E 270 Khattak, N 1 The Design Process Two design philosophies are presently used: 1. Allowable Stress Design 2. Limit States Design 1. Allowable Stress Design Method (Empirical Approach) Allowable stress values for most materials have been established, based on experimental data on these materials. The allowable stress value is generally established by applying a factor of safety to the experimental failure values, i.e. Allowable Load = Failure Load or Allowable Stress = Failure Stress Factor of Safety Factor of Safety i.e. ° allowable = . . S F failure σ (where F.S. = Factor of Safety) The engineer must pick member sizes such that the resulting stress due to applied loading in the structural member is restricted to be less than the established allowable stress for that material. (CivE 372, 374) ( Normal and Shear Stress) ( Axial force, Shear Force, Bending Moment) Structural System Loads Perform Structural Analysis Member Forces Stress Analysis Identify maximum stresses Design
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Design Civ E 270 Khattak, N 2 The factor of safety takes care of uncertainties in design. Some causes of errors, which cause uncertainties in design, can be listed as: The factor of safety is usually based on experience and advice from building codes.
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