Sand Flies (Oct.15) - SandFlies,BlackFlies,BitingMidges...

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Sand Flies, Black Flies, Biting Midges Order: Diptera o 188 families o 10,000 genera o 150,000 species Diptera o Last lectures: House Fly,  Musca domestica Face Fly,  Musca autumnalis Stable Fly,  Stomoxys calcitrans Horn Fly,  Haematob iairritans Screw worm (blowfly),  Cochliomyia hominivorax Flesh Fly (Sarcophagidae) Keds (Hippoboscidae)  o This lecture: Sand Fly,  Psychodidae  Black Flies,  Simuliidae Biting Midges,  Ceratopogonidae Sand Fly: Psychodidae o 3,000 species o 6 subfamilies (4 are non-binding) Psychodinae- Moth or Drain Flies Non-biting Short mouthparts, short legs, wings flat at rest Myiasis Phelbotominae- Sand Flies- Important Vectors Sand Flies: Phelbotominae o Eggs deposited in small scattered groups o Larvae whitish with dark head (4 instars) o Adults Densely hairy Blood fed (only females) Scissor-like mandibles cut skin and produce subcutaneous pool Saliva components = anti-clotting Some are anautogenous Also feed on plant sap, nectar, etc. 
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Sand Fly Importance o Protozoan parasites:  Leshmania  spp. o Cutaneous: dermal lesion at site of bite/inoculation o Visceral: chronic systemic (fatal is not treated) o Hosts Human: 2 million cases per year Dogs and cats (including U.S.) Lesions on nose and ears Outbreak in fox hounds in New York (1999) o Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease Virus in Rhabdo viridae (along with rabies) Causes blisters in mouth, feet, and occasionally elsewhere “Pseudo-foot-and-mouth disease” Biological vectors (Phlebotomine Sand Flies, Black Flies,  Culicoides Hosts  Cattle, Horses, and Pigs
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