Learning Objectives Exam 1 - Physiology 3051 Fall 2015...

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Physiology 3051 Fall 2015 Learning Objectives for Dr. Keirstead’s Classes (Sept. 8 - Sept. 30) CT = Critical Thinking Exercise, in “Cells to Systems: Critical Thinking Exercises in Physiology, 3 rd Edition”. The CT exercises are provided as a tool to help you work through some aspects of the learning objectives. Students are expected to read the textbook BEFORE coming to class. BASIC CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY PRINCIPLES We expect that you have been exposed to the following concepts in your chemistry and biology courses. If not, use Chapters 2 and 4 of Silverthorn’s Human Physiology to review them. Contact me at [email protected] if you need clarification of the learning objectives. See also the “Chemistry and Biochemistry Tidbits” recording on the moodle site for a review of these concepts. 1. Understand which molecular characteristics determine the solubility of substances in water and lipids (see Fig 2.8 review). Solubility depends on the hydrophilicity of the solute. Hydrophobic molecules readily dissolve in lipids. Hydrophilic molecules readily dissolve in water. Temperature and pressure also affect solubility. 2. Describe the polar structure of water, and explain how hydrogen bonds in water permit the dissociation of salts (such as NaOH or NaCl). The oxygen atom in water has a partial negative charge and the hydrogen atoms have a partial positive charge. The oxygen and hydrogen atoms on different water molecules can interact to form weak hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds facilitate the dissociation of salts into ions because the ions form hydration shells around the oppositely charged atoms in water (eg. Na+ surrounds O and Cl- surrounds H) 3. Explain the Law of Mass Action in the context of the following chemical reaction, and describe what would happen to the concentration of CO 2 if the concentration of H 2 CO 3 were increased: H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy The Law of Mass Action says that for a reaction at equilibrium, the ratio of substrates to products is always the same (LeChatlier’s principle). If the concentration of H 2 CO 3 increases, the concentration of CO 2 increases. 4. Describe the physiological role of ATP , and explain the general types of reactions in which it is involved with respect to energy storage and release (Chap 4 in Silverthorn). ATP is an energy storage molecule for the body. Energy (in the form of ATP) is produced in catabolic (exergonic) pathways such as the breakdown of glucose. Energy (in the form of ATP) is used in anabolic (endergonic) pathways. The additional of a phosphate to ADP stores energy in the form of ATP. 5. List the 4 major categories of biomolecules and describe the main roles that each play in cellular physiology (e.g see Fig. 2.5 and preceding text in Silverthorn). a) Proteins- used for energy and as the building blocks of cellular components b) Lipids- used for energy and as the building blocks of cellular components c) Carbohydrates- used for energy and as the building blocks of cellular components d)
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  • Spring '14
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