Learning Objectives Exam 4 - Learning Objectives for Dr...

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Learning Objectives for Dr. Anderson’s Lectures/Labs EXAM 4 Material: Lecture 27 – Female Reproduction, Menstrual Cycle Combination of negative and positive feedback External: vulva Growth of breasts is first sign of puberty 1. Discuss the structures of the ovary involved in hormone and egg production. In the female fetus there are stem cells called oogonia which undergo mitotic division to form oocytes in the ovary. Each primary oocyte is enclosed in a primary follicle with an outer layer of granulosa cells separated by a layer of cells known as the theca. The granulosa cells produce estrogen and the theca cells produce androgen precursor. Under the influence of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), a few follicles containing primary oocytes develop. Will develop into secondary follicle, then tertiary (dominant) follicle is chosen around day 7 of the cycle. Ovulated oocyte occurs around day 14 of the cycle. The follicle remnant then turns into the corpus luteum which secretes high levels of estrogen and progesterone. Lasts for about 14 days. 2. Explain the negative and positive feedback regulation of female sex hormones. In the mid-follicular phase, low levels of estrogen exert negative feedback to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from hypothalamus, FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH) from anterior pituitary. Estrogen secretion has positive feedback on more estrogen secretion from granulosa cells of the follicle. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) prevents more follicles from developing. In the late follicular phase, rising levels of estrogen (positive feedback) plus progesterone cause increase in GnRH and the LH surge. FSH is suppressed by inhibin (negative feedback). In early to mid-luteal phase, combined estrogen and high levels progesterone shut off FSH and LH (negative feedback). Corpus luteum is producing estrogen and progesterone. In the late luteal phase, estrogen and progesterone fall when corpus luteum dies. New follicle begins to develop for start of a new cycle. 3. Compare and contrast functions of progestins and estrogens Estrogens: category, most common: estradiol Promotes growth of breasts and reproductive structures Promotes positive feedback mechanism for ovulation and fertility Promotes cervical mucus production- at ovulation mucin strands aid in sperm transport through cervix Progestins: category, most common: progesterone Promote differentiation of breasts and endometrium Promotes implantation and pregnancy Inhibits smooth muscle contraction in uterus Thickens cervical mucus and blocks cervical opening Promotes differentiation of corpus luteum into secretory gland Elevates body temperature 4. Compare and contrast ovarian (Follicular, ovulation, Luteal) and uterine (Menstrual, Proliferative and Secretory) cycles throughout the lifespan CT 9.2 Ovarian (follicular- dominant follicle chosen; ovulation- follicle is ovulated; luteal- remnants of follicle is converted into the corpus luteum, which secretes estrogen and progesterone)
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