Biol 1202 - final - *Apply for fellowship on ASPB site...

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*Apply for fellowship on ASPB site Flowering plants – diploid, multicellular, eukaryotic organism that does photosynthesis The main body of the plant is diploid – in plants you have sperm and egg (like in humans) and became a single diploid cell Coevolution – where they evolve together over millions of years Chapter 38 – Plant Reproduction and Development Asexual reproduction – by fragmentation, either naturally (runners) or artificially (clippings) Totipotent – most plants can regenerate into a whole new plant – ex: leaf, African violet Sexual reproduction – combines genes from 2 different parents, offspring genetically different (Study reproductive cycle slide!!) Evolution of flowers – Evolved from Gymnosperms (earliest seed plants) – wind pollination used for fertilization - insects started carrying pollen grains from male to female plants about 150 million years ago - there were no flowers before then? (everything was green) - plants enticed insects with food in the form of pollen (protein rich) and female cones (sugar rich) Angiosperms – flowering plants, developed about 130 million years ago – flowers attract pollinators Flowering structure – parts evolved from leaves Complete flowers have 4 parts 1. sepals – sometimes colored, attractors 2. petals 3. stamens – male reproductive parts, composed of filament and anther 4. carpels – female reproductive parts, composed of stigma, style and ovary (also called pistel) Incomplete flowers lack at least 1 of those parts Coevolution of flowers and pollinators Wind – pollinated flowers: inconspicuous and unscented, produce LOTS of pollen (hit-or-miss strategy) **Study the slide with reproduction of plants! Angiosperm gametophyte development (gametophyte = multicellular haploid structure) - develop inside sporophyte (diploid and multicellular) flowers, very small and parasitic (can’t live on their own) – require nutrition and other things that help them grow from the parent plant - pollen grains are the male gametophyte (haploid) – pollen develops within the pollen sacs:
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- 2 haploid sperm cells - embryo sac – female gametophyte, produces egg cells – sac development results in 7 cells – develops in the ovary of megasporangia in the megaspore and goes through 3 rounds of mitosis but instead of producing 8 cells, one of the cells does not finish mitosis and go through cytokinesis - 1 egg cell - 1 primary endosperm cell with 2 nuclei - 5 cells that degenerate (don’t worry about these) - when pollen moves from the male to the female parts it is called pollination - sperm must be the same species as the egg (most of the time) – sometimes different species can form new species – called hybridization - many plants cannot self-pollinate Pollination and fertilization are TWO SEPARATE THINGS!
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