Lecture 13 - Micronutrients 1

Lecture 13 - Micronutrients 1 - MICRONUTRIENTS PART 1 Bind...

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MICRONUTRIENTS PART 1 Bind to Type II Steroid Hormone Receptors and have Global Health Implications (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin K, iodide, calcium, phosphorus, fluoride)
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Vitamins & Minerals: The Basics Characteristics for classification as a vitamin: Exogenous supply is required Needed in small amounts Distinct from sugars, fats and proteins with regards to structure and function Performs at least one essential biochemical function When lacking in the diet, a characteristic deficiency disease develops Organic Main distinction from minerals (which are inorganic)
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Ways to Discuss Micronutrients? Traditional Discussion Fat soluble vitamins, water soluble vitamins, and minerals Functional Groupings/Practical Importance Discussion Group I: Micronutrients which control type II steroid hormone receptors and have major global health implications Iodide, Vit A, Vit D, Calcium, Vit K, Phosphorus and Fluoride Group II: Micronutrients that work together in oxidant defense Vit E, Selenium, Vit C, Niacin, Riboflavin, Copper, Zinc, Manganese Group III: Micronutrients that act as enzyme cofactors Thiamin, Niacin, Riboflavin, Vit B6, Folate, Vit B12, Biotin, Pantothenic acid Group IV: Iron, copper, and zinc-related divalent cations 1 out of 3 people in developing countries are affected by vitamin & mineral deficiencies. -World Health Organization
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Group 1 These micronutrients control cellular function through a certain type of interaction (type II steroid receptors) Not all act necessarily on steroid hormone receptors (only Vit A, Vit D, and iodine) But, you can’t talk about Vit D without talking about calcium, phosphorus, and Vit K (**all involved in bone metabolism) Vit A consumed as retinol or beta carotene…which is eventually converted into retinoic acid Vit D precursors converted to calcitriol, which regulates Calcium levels in the body Iodine used to make hormone T3, which regulates synthesis of proteins that control BMR
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Steroid Hormone Receptors Steroid Hormone Receptors (SHRs): Intracellular protein receptors that bind to hormones and become active transcription factors Type 1 Receptors Cytosolic Respond to steroid hormones like estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, glucocorticoids, and mineralcorticoids Type 2 Receptors Nuclear Respond to steroid and non-steroid ligands, like thyroid hormone, retinoic acid, and calcitrol. *Not all ligands are derived from steroids
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IODINE
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Iodine (inorganic mineral) content of most foods is low Iodine found in higher concentrations in coastal populations compared to mountainous regions Seafood has high concentrations (especially sea greens) In North America, most of the iodine consumed is as salt fortified with potassium iodine Iodized salt contains 0.03mg iodine per g of salt Iodine in the Diet As of 2007…29% of the world population live in areas of deficiency
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Iodine (I) is typically found in the body in its ionic form (iodide, I - )
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