Lecture 1 - Essential Nutrients

Lecture 1 - Essential Nutrients - NUTR*3210 FUNDAMENTALS OF...

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Unformatted text preview: NUTR *3210 FUNDAMENTALS OF NUTRITION Essentials for the course • Introductions – Dr. Mutch • ANNU 348B • Office Hours: Every Tuesday 3-4pm (first come, first serve) – If this doesn’t work for you, 2 other options: • Email me at [email protected] to set up an appointment • Post your question on the D2L discussion board • D2L discussion board – An excellent resource. Chances are at least 1 other person has the same question as you…so this is the most efficient way for all of us to communicate • Evaluation / Exams – Midterm: In class on MONDAY FEB 11th – worth 40% (multiple choice) – Final: THURSDAY APRIL 11th – worth 60% (multiple choice) • New section has been created by the Registrar – (same time, taught by Dr. Jim Kirkland) • Questions?? Looking back in time… • 500 BC – Anaxagoras reasoned that food became the human body and must therefore contain ‘generative components’ (eluding to nutrients). • 460 BC – Hippocrates recognized that medical examination should focus on the individual. • 1614 AD – Santorio Sanctorius, considered to be the founding father of metabolic studies, determined that the sum total of visible excrement (urine, feces, sweat) was less than the amount of substance ingested. The first study that eluded to the concept of metabolism. • 17th Century su pp le m en t wit h nu tri en ts, re ga ini – Dietary supplementation can improve the health of individuals with particular diseases (e.g. iron fillings to wine could improve anaemic patients, citrus fruits prevents scurvy). The recognition that some nutrients are essential. • 19th Century – Several scientist’s work led to the notion of vitamins and their importance in the prevention of diseases (Beri beri, rickets, etc). • 20th Century – Nutrition, taking methods from a variety of different scientific fields (epidemiology, chemistry, biochemistry) moves beyond describing nutrients to asking ‘how much of each nutrient is needed for optimal health’. • 21st Century – The term ‘nutritional genomics’ first appears in the literature, and describes the notion that diet and genes can interact to affect an individual’s health. Nutrition “The doctor of the future will no longer treat the human frame with drugs, but rather will cure and prevent disease with nutrition.” – Thomas Edison (American Inventor) ...“Our food should be our medicine and our medicine should be our food.” – Hippocrates (Greek Physician) …“To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art.” – La Rochefoucauld (French Writer) …“He that takes medicine and neglects diet wastes the skills of the physician.” – Chinese proverb …“Those who think they have no time for healthy eating, will sooner or later have to find time for illness.” – Edward Stanley (English Statesman) …“Unfortunately, everything the experts tell us about diet is aimed at the whole population, and we are not all the same.” – The Scientist magazine What is nutrition? The science of…… • food • nutrients and substances in food • their action, interaction and balance in relation to health and disease • the processes by which the organism: – ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes, excretes food substances AMA Council on Food and Nutrition, JAMA 242: 2335, 1979 What is nutrition? • Modern nutrition has moved from understanding how to prevent nutrient deficiencies to understanding the effects of over-nutrition. Now, the goal is to understand the optimal levels of nutrients what do we need to ensure optimal health, we dont all have the same genetic make up, we dont use it the same way, genomics, fundamental to nutrition • However, people are not the same and respond differently to the same thing • Nutrigenomics…a new branch of nutrition… Essential Nutrients? chemicals that are required for metabloism that we dont produce ourselfves or not enough quantity An essential nutrient is a chemical that is required for metabolism, but that cannot be synthesized or cannot be synthesized rapidly enough to meet the needs of an animal or human for one or more physiological functions… Nutrients are essential to the human diet if: 1. Removing causes a deficiencythe and decline in health 1. the nutrient Removing nutrient causes a deficiency and decline 2. Putting the nutrient back into the diet corrects the problem and health will return in health 2. Putting the nutrient back into the diet corrects the problem and health will return Nutritional Deficiency • Nutritional deficiencies occur when a person's nutrient intake consistently falls below the recommended requirement. • Examples – Deficiency in Iron, Folate, and/or Vitamin B12? • Anaemia – not enough red blood cells to transport oxygen around the body – important at key developmental stages (pregnancy and infancy) – Vitamin D? a little bit from diet, alot from sun, formation of metabloites, essential for calcium absorption in digestive tract , leads • Rickets to problems with bone formation – 10% of Vit D from the diet, 90% made by the body via UV radiation (sunlight) – defective bone growth – Thiamine (Vitamin B1)? • Beriberi – energy production – abnormalities in the nervous system – Vitamin C? • Scurvy – iron absorption – haemorrhaging, bleeding of the gums, etc MARCH 24, 2010 Estimating Nutrient Requirements • Deficiency ≠ Nutritional Requirements – Deficiency prevention of disease optimal health – Nutritional Requirement ensure ensure optimal health how much of a nutrient is required to optimize health, how to make people better so they can live longer • Why understand nutritional requirements? stems from WW1, food shortage, needed to figure out what was needed to maintain life rationed foods, needed to figure out and what needed to be avoided disease, not necessary optimal health • Early limitations? used the wrong people, young men, things change and what you need between sexes and growing up need to take alot into acount lead to alot of deaths, they were using a very specific type of individual • Nutrition & statistics? bell curves natural distribution Estimating Nutrient Requirements • Range of nutrient intakes required by individuals to achieve same end point of growth, storage, or health • Estimating requirements statistically… Percentage of the population EAR RDI= EAR+ 2 standard deviations x x x Rickets x x Osteomalacia x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x RDI x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Hypercalcemia [ Nutrient ] required to satisfy the accepted endpoint (growth, health, etc.) Estimating Nutrient Requirements • Let’s look at the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) from a different angle…. - Let’s look at risk (the opposite of health)…. EAR Rickets Osteomalacia RDI Hypercalcemia [ Nutrient ] required to satisfy the accepted endpoint (growth, health, etc.) RDI Cumulative Risk Percentage of the population EAR 50 % of population,, 50 health, 50 disease UL 1.0 0.5 0 97-98% Deficit almost no risk Excess [ Nutrient ] required to satisfy the accepted endpoint (growth, health, etc.) Estimating Requirements • Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined) to be sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and sex group. Nutrient Units Daily Values Recommended Dietary Allowance Total Fat grams 65 Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) – USA Total Carbohydrate grams 300 Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) – Canada Protein grams 50 Recommended dietary allowance: Dietary Based on a 2000 calorie intake Understanding Starvation • Ancel Keys, professor at U of Minnesota • Minnesota Starvation Experiment – Characterize the physical and mental effects of starvation in 36 healthy men • 3 months @ 3200kcal/d • 6 months @ 1800kcal/d • 3 months rehabilitation with normal caliroes, thought 3 months would solve the problem, some men took 2 years to recover • Outcomes? takes along time to recover found mental problems, concentration, dissy, nauscious, no exercise sick, disfunctional study important: landmark Source: Kalm & Semba, J. Nutr. 2005 Understanding a Nutritious Diet Diet must provide enough nutrients, but not too many… A nutritious diet has 4 characteristics that have distinct meanings: – Adequate: aadietdiet that provides enough essential nutrients, and that provides enough cals, essential nutrientsCalories, and fibre to keep you healthy fibre to keep you healthy – Moderate: ensuring ensuring you don’t consume excessive Calories, or eat more you dont consume exessive cals, or eat more then one food or food group than recommended of one food or food group than recommended – Balanced: making making sure youdense eatfoods, nutrient-dense foods, sure you eat nutrientrather than nutrient-poor foods rather than nutrient-poor foods. – Varied: eating eating a wide selection of foods to get the necessary a wide selection of foods to get the necessary nutrients nutrients Studying Nutrition • Cell culture models • Animal Models • Epidemiological – Prospective vs. Intervention – Difficulties – genetics, lifestyle, cultural habits, etc. Nutrient Classes CARBOHYDRATES (& FIBRE) LIPID MACRONUTRIENTS ORGANIC contain Carbon PROTEIN VITAMINS MICRONUTRIENTS MINERALS INORGANIC WATER “You are what you eat” Water 60% Vitamins & Minerals 2% Lipid 20-25% Protein 15% crutial for membranes interorganelle Carbohydrate 0.5% Source: Nutrition for Foodservice and Culinary Professionals, 7th ed (Metabolism) Anabolism + Catabolism e.g. Insulin (energy in) e.g. Glucagon Cells Tissues Nutrient Building Blocks Nutrient Intake (energy out) Nutrient Building Blocks Recycled Nutrients Waste for Excretion Water is an Essential Nutrient • Intake by adult humans: 2 - 2.5 kg/day • Compare this to: • Carbohydrate: 250-350 g/d • Fat: 60-80 g/d • Protein: 50-80 g/d Functions: Sources (human adults): •Solvent •Fluids (~ 1L/d) •Lubricant •Solid foods (~ 1L/d) •Temperature regulation •Metabolism (~ 300 mL/d) •Catabolism (hydrolysis) Water Toxicity? • Water > kidney’s ability to process each hour (~ 0.9 L / hr) BLOOD CELL H2O Sodium Hyponatremia kidney is unable to process the water electrolytes dont balance body in a negative situation body tries to balance itself out with water and sodium in the cells and plasma cells kick out sodium and take in water a metabolic condition in which there is not enough sodium (salt) in the body fluids outside the cell problem= run out of salt, and cells burst= not a good thing! Source: PubMed Health Nutrition News she dranks alot of water in small period of time, and she complained of head aches and died that night, water toxitiicty body was unable to cope ...
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