Lecture+14+-+College+Education - College Education Lecture...

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Lecture 14 College Education
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Only a fraction of minority and low-income students go to college. Of those who do go to college, few will graduate. By the age of 26, 59% of people from affluent families will have a college degree, compared to just 7% from lower income households. At elite colleges and universities, just 5% of students come from the bottom quartile of the income spectrum. Inequality in Higher Education
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From 1949 to 1999, the proportion of the population going to college increased by 800%. Today, one in four Americans has a college degree. History of Higher Education
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Before World War II, college degrees were not necessary for getting a good job. Wealthy people went to college to learn social skills and build social networks. History of Higher Education
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After World War II, the GI Bill made college affordable to returning soldiers. For the first time, people from all social classes were attending college. Faced with better qualified applicants, employers began requiring a college degree for certain jobs. History of Higher Education
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History of Higher Education The college degree today is often a minimum requirement for getting even the lowest level job. Many people today are totally overqualified for their jobs.
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To distinguish themselves academically for employers today, students focus on the prestige of their college or university, rather than the amount of education. History of Higher Education
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Prior to the 1920s, admission to elite schools was uncompetitive— everyone who met their academic standards got in. Faced with increasing numbers of well-qualified Jewish students, admissions committees started using other criteria for admission. History of Higher Education In 1918, 20% of Harvard freshmen were Jewish. Admissions committees tried to impose Jewish quotas.
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Personal interviews and personal essays were used to identify applicants who admissions committees viewed as belonging to “undesirable” races, ethnicities, religions, or socioeconomic statuses. History of Higher Education
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Princeton’s 1-4 rating system for applicants: 1= “very desirable and apparently exceptional material from every point of view.” 4 = “undesirable from the point of view of character, and therefore to be excluded no matter what the results of the entrance examinations might be.” History of Higher Education
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In 1942, Harvard began using the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) in admissions, and other colleges soon followed. The SAT is supposed to predict a student’s potential for college success. History of Higher Education
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Does the SAT work in predicting a student’s potential for college success? In general, the SAT does accurately predict freshman year GPA for white males.
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