Developmental Theories SV PPT - Theories of Development 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Theories of Development 2 Periods of Development 1. Prenatal period (conception - birth) 2. Infancy & Toddlerhood (birth - 2 years) 3. Early childhood (2 - 6 years) 4. Middle childhood (6 - 11 years) 5. Adolescence (11 - 18 years) Nature or Nurture? Nature vs. Nurture Nature: biological, genetics Nurture: physical and social worked, influences biology and psychological development. Developmental Theories… ! ! ! DESCRIBE. EXPLAIN. PREDICT. Limitations of Theories ! ! ! Explains, but leaves out important facts One theory can’t explain everything Each theory has its own focus Each%theory%is%a%unique%piece%of%the%puzzle% of%human%development. Social Learning Cognitive Ecological Socio0cultural Key Theories of Development ! ! ! ! ! ! Psychoanalytic Behavioral Social learning Ecological systems Cognitive Sociocultural Psychoanalytic Theories ! ! Children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations Best known theorists ! ! Sigmund Freud Erik Erikson how these conflicts are resolved determines the person’s ability to learn, to get along with other, and to cope with anxiety Freud’s Five Stage of Psychosexual Development Anal Stage (15 mos-3 yrs) ! ! ! Key is toilet training (TT) Parents teach child to be clean If problem arises, it will influence the child into adulthood ! ! Anal compulsive (orderly; WAY too demanding) Anal expulsive (messy; personality related to parents weren’t demanding enough during TT) Sigmund Freud (1856 –1939) ! ! The mind consists of three basic components: – ID – primitive instincts, completely unconscious – Ego – rational thought – Superego – ethics, morals, CONSCIENCE Constant state of conflict between the three components Constant BATTLE between ID + Superego Freud’s lasting legacy? ! ! ! ! A model of thinking of personality Relationship between early experiences and later personality Awareness of conscious v. unconsconscious Made its way into our cultural consciousness Erik Erikson (1902 – 1994) ! ! As we grow, we pass through 8 distinct stages of development Each stage was defined by a conflict between a pair of opposing impulses or behaviors. The resolution (or not) affects our personalities and identities. Erikson’s Theory Pro: Spans lifetime development ! Con: Broad and somewhat vague ! Major difference from Freud’s? ! Focused on social instead of sexual ! Behavioral Theories ! ! ! Focus on observable conditions and behaviors Developmental change is caused by environmental sources Famous Theorists: ! ! ! Pavlov Watson Skinner Behavioral: Ivan Pavlov ! Worked with dogs to demonstrate Classical conditioning Behavioral: John Watson ! Experiment with 11mo old “Little Albert” in 1920’s Behavioral: B.F. Skinner ! Operant conditioning ! ! Children learn through consequences “operate” on their environments to avoid punishments and attract more reinforcements child gets negative consequence of being scolded; when youre good you get rewards, when you do something bad, you get negative consequences: child seeks out pleasurable results and avoids negative results All%of%these%individuals%are%REINFORCED by% the%results%they%receive. A"response"that"is"followed"by"a" reinforcing"stimulus"is"more"likely to" occur"again. If%a%stimulus%increases%behavior,%it’s%a% reinforcement. If%a%stimulus%decreases%behavior,%it’s%a% punishment. Social-Learning: Albert Bandura ! Behaviors are learned through observation & imitation – don’t necessarily need punishments or rewards rule of models in our environment Famous Bobo Doll Experiment children saw a model beat a bobo doll; half the kids saw the model act in violent ways; other half saw the model interact with it in a nonaggressive way; kids who saw aggressiveness acted aggressively with the doll the more the model is like you, the more you are like to imitate the behavior Social-Learning held a baby in front of him and made different faces; child is more likely to make this face when model is, as opposed to when he is not newborn babies Systems Theories Systems theories view the child as developing within layers of variables which interact with each other in complex ways. Babies do not develop in little boxes. child develops cognitively by exploring the environment; child is naturally driven to explore the environment Cognitive Focus on the development of thinking Children’s active role in constructing their own thinking through interaction with the environment Best known theorist: Piaget Cognitive: Jean Piaget ! ! ! Children are motivated to explore their environments, which leads to cognitive change (learning). Believed in 4 stages of Cognitive Development Stage (NOT Age) drives development Piaget’s%Stages can’t skip a stage, can’t go back and forth Invariant%and%universal Piaget’s Stages 33 Sensorimotor%Stage%(0I2%years) rapid development of motor skills which • • • SensoryImotor% as%the%basis%of% knowledge Skills%and% knowledge% advance%with% advancing% motor%skills New%skills%build% on%reflexes allows the child to develop their cognitive skills reflexes: automatic behaviors; i.e. baby given discomfort, the baby will cry dynamic systems - kids have object permanance but it is FRAGILE initially Skills%of%the%Sensorimotor%Stage • Object%Permanence the idea that objects are stable and permanent; even when they are out of view, they do not cease to exist • AInotIB%error • Deferred%Imitation 2 identical hiding locations, hidden in location A a few times, and then put it in location B and the baby can not get it observing someone do something, hold it in your mind for some amount of time, and then imitate it Preoperational%Stage%(2I7) • Strength%in: – Language – Pretend%Play • Weakness%in:% – Intuitive%Thought – Egocentrism – Centration Intuitive%thought Reasoning%based%on%personal% experience%or%intuitive%logic. “Airplanes%fly%because%they%move%their% wings%up%and%down%like%a%bird” Egocentrism Tendency%to%consider%the%world%entirely% in%terms%of%one’s%own%point%of%view Cannot%see%the%world%from%another% person’s%perspective Figuratively%AND%literally! Egocentrism The%threeImountain%task Egocentrism Children’s%conversations Concrete%Operational%(7I12) • Enters%concrete%operational%stage%upon% mastering%the%concept%of%conservation preoperational stage causes of errors: 1. centrate on one aspect of the situation: 2. fail to conserve: dont realize that objects conserve their basic properties when their appearance has changed Conservation 1. 2. 3. Decentered - consider multiple aspects of the problem Dynamic transformations - kids consider the action that changed objects Reversibility - realize that the process would be reversed and they would appear the same again 44 ● “Are there more dogs or animals?” 45 Formal%Operational%(12%&%up) • • • Can%make% mental% manipulation s%without% reliance%upon% present% objects Abstract% thought Stage%not% Adolescent%Thinking • Development%of%the%prefrontal% cortex%continues%through% adolescence Cognitive%Change • Adaptation – Assimilation – Accomodation when a child responds to a new event in a way that is consistent with an existing thought • when a child either modifies an existing schema or forms an entirely new schema to deal with a new object or event Equilibration%/%Disequilibration Sociocultural Theory Children learn through interaction with others Best known theorist: Vygotsky Cognitive: Lev Vygotsky Sociocultural Theory ! Perceived children as social beings intertwined with other people who were eager to help them learn and gain skills ! Emphasizes role of language and culture ! Mother: Now%you%need%another%one%just%like%this%on%the%other%side.% Mmmmmmm….%There%you%go%just%like%that. Sarah: Then%I%need%this%one%to%go%like%this?%Hold%on,%hold%on.%Let%it% go.%There.%Get%that%out.%Ooops. Mother: I’ll%hold%it%while%you%turn%it.%(Watches.child.work.on.toy) Now% you%make%the%end. Sarah: This%one? Mother: No%look%at%the%picture.%Right%here.%(points.at.instructions). That%piece. Sarah: Like%this? Mother: Yeah. Three%Lessons • • • Sarah%is%learning%in% an%interpersonal% context Mom%assists%Sarah% in%doing%aspects%she% can’t%on%her%own Sarah%&%Mom%work% with%cultural%tools%in% a%broader%cultural% context Children%as%Teachers Sociocultural%Principles%of%Cognitive% Development • Children%are%social%beings%shaped%by%(and% also%shaping)%their%cultural%contexts • Children%are%both%learners%and%teachers% – A%uniquely%human%quality – Enables%us%to%pass%on%culture Scaffolding • Adjusting%the%support%offered%during%a%teaching% session%to%fit%the%child’s%current%level%of% performance Zone%of%Proximal%Development • The%range%%between%what%children%can%do% unsupported%and%what%they%can%do%with% optimal%social%support Level%of%difficulty Too%hard%I will% get%lost Too%easy%I won’t%learn% anything%new Age/experience Freund%(1990) 3I and%5I year%olds systematic difference between the way parents of 3 years olds and the way parents of 5 year olds talk to their children Private%Speech • Children%internalize%new%information% through%private%speech the private speech (talking to ourselves) is important to cognitive development and the origins of it are through interactions with others ...
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