Lecture4_xmitter_opto_wide - Neurotransmission...

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Neurotransmission & Neurogenetics
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Every person’s nervous system has characteristics that are shared by: Every neuron in your nervous system has characteristics that are shared by: all cells… all eukaryotic cells… all human cells… all brain cells… all neurons… some neurons … no other neuron… What makes one neuron different from (or similar to) another????
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The Somatic Compartment: Home of the Nucleus Regardless of their shape, size, or function, all neurons have a soma that contains the cell’s nucleus As in all cells, the nucleus of a neuron contains the cell’s DNA, and is where protein transcription occurs To understand neurochemistry and neurogenetics genetics, is helpful to review cellular protein transcription and translation
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Proteins are molecular machines Every cell in the body makes thousands of different proteins , which are molecular machines that work like “robots” that are assigned specific jobs. Some proteins do their work inside of the cell where they are made, while others are secreted from the cell to do their work elsewhere in the body. Immunoglobulin G is an antibody secreted by white blood cells that binds to pathogens to protect the body from infections. Hemoglobin stores oxygen inside of red blood cells so that it can be delivered to tissues throughout the body. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that helps to supply the body with energy by allowing tissues to metabolize sugars. Adenylate cyclase is an enzyme found in all cells that catalyzes conversion of ATP into cyclic AMP (cAMP), a potent signaling molecule. Glutamine synthetase deactivates glutamate (an excitatory neurotransmitter) by condensing it with ammonia to form the amino acid glutamine . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein#Synthesis A FEW EXAMPLES OF PROTEINS FOUND IN ANIMAL BODY TISSUES :
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Neuronal Proteins Neurons are special kinds of cells, and some of the proteins they make are elements of the neuronal phenotype because they do special kinds of jobs that are mainly performed in neurons. Some proteins are more narrowly found in specific neural populations Synapsin regulates the docking and fusion of neurotransmitter vesicles in synaptic boutons (found in all neurons). Dopamine transporters push dopamine neurotransmitter molecules back into cells after they are released at the synapse (found mainly in neurons that release dopamine). Glutamate decarboxylase is an enzyme found in inhibitory neurons that catalyzes conversion of glutamate into GABA (found mainly in neurons that release GABA). Voltage-gated sodium channels generate action potentials by opening to allow sodium into the cell when its membrane becomes depolarized (different versions are found in different neurons).
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