Lecture6_development_anatomy - Neural Development...

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Neural Development & Functional Neuroanatomy
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Levels of Organization in the Nervous System Molecules Compartments Neurons Populations Circuits Systems Nervous System Cellular & Molecular Neuroscience Circuits Neuroscience Systems Neuroscience
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Heirarchical organization of behavior Observable behaviors can be loosely organized into a heirarchy of complexity (this list is not exhaustive or comprehensive, just useful): Reflexes a single stimulus elicits single motor response Examples: flexion, withdrawal, orienting Action patterns innate stereotyped patterns of motor output Examples: heartbeat, breathing, feeding, mating Habits – learned patterns of motor output that are largely “automatic” and require very little volitional control Examples: driving a car on a familiar route, eating with utensils, etc. Goal-directed behavior purposeful, decision-driven behaviors selected by consciously weighing alternative actions and their costs & benefits Examples: driving a car on a novel route, deciding what to order at a restaurant, planning a vacation, taking a behavioral neuroscience course
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Relating structure and function of the CNS Reflexes Action patterns Habits Goal-directed behavior To a first approximation, it can be said ‘simpler’ behaviors are mainly controlled by ‘lower’ brain regions Increasingly ‘complex’ behaviors require additional involvement of increasingly ‘higher’ brain regions Lower organisms have simpler nervous systems, and are thus not capable of the same complex behaviors that higher organisms can perform
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Simpler organisms have simpler nervous systems The entire nervous system of a fruitfly is organized similarly to the vertebrate brainstem & spinal cord, without much extra ‘brain’
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The mature human brain has over 80 billion neurons and many trillions of synapses…how do they form? Development of the nervous system is regulated by both genes (“nature”) and environmental experiences (“nurture”). Growth and Development of the Brain Are Orderly Processes . In general, “lower” brain regions develop earliest. Development of the Nervous System Can Be Divided into Six Distinct Stages… TIME AFTER FERTILIZATION: Brain development
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Six stages of neural development 1. Neurogenesis mitosis produces neurons from nonneuronal cells. 2. Cell migration cells move to establish distinct populations. 3. Differentiation cells become distinctive neurons or glial cells. 4. Synaptogenesis establishment of synaptic connections 5. Neuronal cell death selective death of many nerve cells 6. Synapse rearrangement loss or development of synapses, to refine synaptic connections
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Embyronic Development A developing human is called an embryo for the first 10 weeks (2.5 months); then it is called a fetus .
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