Lecture16_memory - Learning and memory Learning Memory...

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Learning and memory
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Learning is: The process by which our experiences modify our behavior. The process of storing new information in the brain. Memory is: The ability to store and retrieve information. The information our brain stores and retrieves. Learning & Memory
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Temporal Stages of Memory Iconic memories are the briefest memories and store sensory impressions that only last a few seconds. Short-term memories ( STM ), also known as working memory , usually last for less than one minute or throughout conscious rehearsal. Intermediate-term memories ( ITM ) last for hours or days. Long-term memories ( LTM ) last for months, years, or a lifetime. Iconic and short-term memory may be defined as all that you ARE thinking about and remembering right now Intermediate and long- term memory may be defined as all that you ARE thinking about and remembering right now
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Biological substrates of memory Iconic memories are the briefest memories and store sensory impressions that only last a few seconds. Short-term memories ( STM ), also known as working memory , usually last for less than one minute or throughout conscious rehearsal. Intermediate-term memories ( ITM ) last for hours or days. Long-term memories ( LTM ) last for months, years, or a lifetime. The contents of iconic and short-term memory are determined by active patterns of neural activity (which neurons are firing, and how much) The contents of intermediate and long- term memory are determined by the patterns of connectivity between neurons (which neurons are synaptically connected to one another, and how strongly)
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Examples of Iconic & Working Memory Working memory can be subdivided into three components: Phonological loop contains auditory information such as a phone number or a recently uttered sentence Visuospatial sketch pad holds visual impressions Episodic buffer contains integrated sensory information about the recent sequence of events that have been experienced
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+ Working memory: Delayed saccade task Stage 1: Fixation Head-fixed monkey stares at central point (marked by plus sign). + + + Stage 2: Target Appears A target spot appears at one of eight locations surrounding the fixation point. Stage 3: Delay period Target disappears, central fixation is maintained for several seconds. . Stage 4: Saccade Fixation point vanishes, instructing the monkey to look at the former target to obtain reward.
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Diagram adapted from: Chang M H et al. J. Neurosci. 2012;32:2204-2216 + target on spikes + Recording electrodes monitors neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal Cortex (dlPFC) target off fixation off Target-specific delay period activity Data from Fuster and Goldman-Rakic The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex contains neurons that fire during the delay period, and thus appear to hold a “memory” of where the target was after it is gone This is an example of persistent neural activity , or neural firing that sustains itself in the absence of a stimulus (and thus can store a memory of a stimulus that is no longer there)
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