TEST 3 - Human Osteology for Archaeologists Important to...

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Human Osteology for Archaeologists 04/05/2016 ° Important to know if a bone is human. ° Field Identification of Bones Age at Death Sex (Male or Female) Health Status (while alive) ° Number of Bones in Body? Adult Skeleton? 206 Newborn? More ° Skeleton Cranial (skull and mandible) Post-cranial ° Spinal Cord Foramen magnum=the big hole ° Aging Suture closure (both for cranial and post-cranial parts of the body) Newborn (not completely formed. Soft-spot=separate bones, as they age, come together) Adult skull Suture lines come together=soft-spot closes. Sutures close a known ages (an age range) Fusion of long bones—not one bone at birth, typical long bone has 3 parts:
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o Diaphysis (shaft) o Epiphysis (ends) Fuse at known ages Fusion of long bones by age o Injuries to knee are really bad because the bones are not fused. THERE IS NO WRIST BONEyou can’t break your wrist. Shin bone=skin on bone. Knee area fuses at specific times. If you injure that in a sport, it can be very difficult to heal. Swinging kids by their armscan dislocate your shoulder=investigating as parental abuse. If you do break a bone, ask the doctor for specifics. Ankle bone=same as wristno ankle bone. Teeth o Milk teeth=baby teeth o Adult teeth=tooth eruption can be gauged as a tool for determining age, adult teeth are up in gums. Can have a scan to see how they are growing=if baby teeth are growing in wrong o Bone absorption=bone dissolves=purpose of bone is to hold teeth, and if teeth aren’t there, then the bone cuts back and dissolves a little but. Bone will resorbis it really necessary because there is a bone there? Consider whether you should have a tooth pulled because there are implications. Also, a good reason to floss. ° Sex Could be 99% sure of sex with complete skeleton Could be 85% sure of sex with hip bones Could be 60% sure of sex with skulllook at a constellation of traits. Seriate=put in order pick a trait=try to put them in order according to similarity and in the middle=15%, might seriate based on many different traits. Important to look at populations because there is a lot of variability. Forensics=make an estimate based on knowledge of a population=of one person. HIP BONES o Size of opening of Hip Bones—view from above. Birth canal=opening is bigger in females o Greater sciatic notch. In female’s it is wider=wider opening. Males have a narrower sciatic notch. Because of diffence in size bc birth canal o Sub-Pubic Angle: female—angle > 90 degrees; male—angle< 90 degrees ° Class Experiment Feel the corner of your jaw o Is it a sharp angle?
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Mandible Male angular Female is more sloping Feel the bone under your eyebrow o Is it sloped Brow ridge Male is more pronounced Forehead o Male sloping o Female steeper Feel the back of your skull o Is there a bump o Occipital protuberance Male more pronounced Mastoid (ear) o Male larger ° Age and Sex from bones Constellation of traits
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