EPSY 2130 – Final Notes - EPSY 2130 Final Notes I II The...

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EPSY 2130 – Final Notes 3/31/2016 I. The development of language A. Languages and cultural differences 1. Cultures create words for the concepts that are important to them 2. Children develop language as they build on other cognitive abilities by actively trying to make sense of what they hear, looking for patterns, and making up rules 3. Built-in biases and rules may limit the search and guide the pattern recognition 4. Rewards and correction play a role in helping children learn correct language use, but the child’s thought processes are very important 5. Sounds and pronunciation a. By age 5, most children have mastered the sounds of their native language 6. Vocabulary and meaning a. By age 6, most children understand up to 20,000 words and can use about 2,600 b. As cognitive abilities develop, children begin to understand words that express abstract ideas and hypothetical situations 7. Grammar and syntax a. Initially, may apply new rules too widely b. Ex. “broked” instead of “broken” 8. Pragmatics a. Knowledge about how to use language b. When, where, how, and to whom to speak 9. Metalinguistic awareness a. Explicit understanding of language and how it works b. Begins to develop around age 5 B. Emergent literacy 1. 2 categories of skills important for learning reading a. Understanding sounds and codes – decoding units of prints into units of sound and units of sound into units of language (inside-out skills) b. Oral language skills – understanding auditory derivations, and placing them in correct conceptual and contextual framework (outside-in) 2. Supporting emergent literacy a. Reading with children b. Retelling stories and talking about them c. Limiting time spent watch television II. Diversity in language development A. Dual language learning 1. Children can learn two languages at once if they have adequate opportunities in both languages 2. There are many cognitive advantages to learning more than one language 3. People of any age can learn a new language a. The best time to learn accurate pronunciation is early childhood 4. People who can communicate in both a spoken and a signed language or in two different signed languages are considered bilingual B. Bilingualism – speaking two languages C. Cultural differences 1. Might interfere with developing academic English and content understanding
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2. Beliefs about learning shaped by culture and previous experiences may explain why English Language Learners seem quiet and reluctant to speak in class III. Dialect differences in the classroom A. Dialect 1. Any variety of a language spoken by a particular group 2. Includes variation in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation 3. Differs by region, even within small distances or communities B. Genderlect 1. Differences between how males and females speak C. Accent 1. Inflection, tone, or choice of words unique to an individual or group of individual D. Dialects and teaching 1. Teachers need to be sensitive to their own stereotypes about children who speak a different dialect 2.
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