EPSY 2130 – Exam 2 Notes

EPSY 2130 – Exam 2 Notes - EPSY 2130 Exam 2 Notes 2 3 4...

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EPSY 2130 – Exam 2 Notes 2/11/2016 Chapter 3 – The Self, Social, and Moral Development I. Physical development A. Preschool children Rapid development of gross motor (large muscle) and fine motor skills B. Elementary school years 1. Development is steady 2. Girls are often ahead of boys in height and weight C. Adolescence 1. Puberty 2. Early maturation a. Boys i. Tend to be more popular ii. More likely to engage in delinquent behavior b. Girls i. Early maturation is not beneficial ii. Tend to have more emotional difficulties II. The social context for development – Bronfenbrenner A. Bronfenbrenner’s Biological Model of Development 1. Development is heavily influenced by interacting systems a. Microsystem – immediate relationships and activities i. Parents, teachers, peers b. Mesosystem – relationships among microsystems i. Parents interacting with teachers, etc. c. Exosystem – social settings i. Communities d. Macrosystem – culture e. Chronosystem – time 2. These systems not only influence each other, but also work together to influence and be influenced by the individual III. The social context for development A. Parenting styles 1. Authoritarian – controlling, often do not allow children agency, not abusive but not openly affectionate 2. Authoritative – clear limits/expectations and clearly enforced rules, but also affectionate 3. Permissive – no clear limits/expectations and no clearly enforced rules, but highly affectionate 4. Rejecting/neglecting – no clear limits/expectations, no affection, little attention B. In European-American middle class families: 1. Children of authoritative parents are more likely to be happy with themselves and relate well to others 2. Children of authoritarian parents are more likely to feel guilty or depressed 3. Children of permissive parents may have trouble interacting with peers C. Cultures differ in parenting styles 1. Research indicates that higher-control parenting is linked to better grades for Asian and African-American students D. Peers 1. Peer relationships play a big role in personal and social development 2. Cliques – small, friendship-based groups 3. Crowds – larger, less organized groups 4. Peer cultures – groups develop own norms for appearance and social behavior E. Teacher support 1. Academic caring a. Setting high, but reasonable expectations b. Helping students to reach those goals 2. Personal caring a. Being patient, respectful, humorous, willing to listen b. Interested in students’ issues and personal problems F. Reporting child abuse 1. Teachers must report potential child abuse 2. Signs of abuse or neglect – unexplained bruises, burns, bites, other injuries, fatigue, depression, frequent absences, poor hygiene, inappropriate clothing, problems with peers, and many others IV. Identity and self-concept A. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Development 1. Connects personal development to social development 2. 8 life stages, each with a developmental crisis a. Adequate resolution of crisis leads to greater personal and social competence B.
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