NURSING_PHARMACOLOGY_Med-surg_Nursing - NURSING...

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NURSING PHARMACOLOGY Med-surg Nursing – from facebook Antineoplastic Agents Chemotherapuetic Agents - treat various cancers These agents interfere with the M phase and DNA Synthesis (S) Stages of the cell cycle and are effective against rapidly dividing cells. Cycle Nonspecific Drugs: do not focus on one specific stage of the cell cycle. used as a prophylactic treatment to suppress the proliferation of cancer cells. Adjuvant Therapy: Used in combination with chemotherapuetic agents as "rescue" drugs to combat certain adverse effects associated with specific chemotherapuetic agents. Major Adverse effects: - GI ulceration - Nausea and vomiting, diarrhea - Anemia (erythrocytopenia) - Infection (leukopenia) - Hemorrhage (thrombocytopenia) - Alopecia - Thin, malformed, brittle nails Alkylating Agents Busulphan (Myleran) Cisplatin (Platinol) Cyclophosphamide (Procytox) Uses: Inhibit tumor cell mitosis by interfering with the chemical structure of tumour cell DNA, kill tumour cells or slow their growth Characteristics: Cell cycle nonspecific Antimetabolites Methotrexate (Folex) Mercaptopurine (Purinethol) Fluorouracil (5-FU) Uses: Disrupt metabolic pathways of tumour cells by occupying spaces of normal building blocks, tumour cells are unable to multiply Characteristics: Cell cycle specific (S phase), replaces normal building blocks required by cancer cells to survive Mitotic Inhibitors Vinblastine (Velban) Vincristine (Oncovin) Etoposide (VePesid) Uses: Interfere with tumour cells during mitosis Characteristics: Cell cycle specific (M phase)
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Antitumor Antibiotics Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) Bleomycin (Blenoxane) Dactinomycin (Cosmogen) Uses: Antibiotic destructive action on tumour cells by interfering with DNA or RNA synthesis, destroy tumour cells Characteristics: cell cycle nonspecific, antibiotic effect Topoisomerase-1 Inhibitors Irinotecan (Camptosar) Topotecan (Hycamtin) Uses: Inhibit normal functioning of tumour cells DNA during the S phase of the cell cycle, tumour cell development is prevented Characteristics: Cell cycle specific, new class of antineoplastic, plant alkaloid Hormonal Antagonists Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) (female specific) Flutamide (Eulexin) (male specific) Action: Alter hormonal environemnt required by tumour cells, environment undesirable for growth and reproduction of tumour cells Characteristics: Cell cycle nonspecific, Prescribed for hormone- dependent tumours Biological Response Modifiers Interferon (IFN alpha 2a) Action: Stimulate client's own immune system by enhancing the immunological functioning of the body Characteristics: Cell cycle nonspecific, not specifically cytotoxic, reduced adverse effects due to immuno-suppression Oncological Disorders Cancer Malignant Neoplasm is a tumor composed of atypical neoplastic, often pleomorphic cells that invade other tissues. Malignant neoplasms often metastasize to distant anatomic sites and may recur after excision. The most common malignant neoplasms are carcinomas (adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas), Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, leukemias, melanomas, and sarcomas.
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  • Spring '16
  • Lanasa
  • Nursing, adverse effects

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