Study Guide - Exam #1 - Study Guide Exam#1 A Very Short...

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Study Guide – Exam #1 A. Very Short Answer Questions 1. What is the natural account of harm? - Someone is harmed when something bad happens to them. 2. What is the counterfactual account of harm? - Someone is harmed only when things go worse for him or her than they otherwise would have. 3. Why is it that making unsafe products by lowering the production costs is not, in general, a good financial strategy? - In general, it’s not a good financial strategy because it increases secondary costs, which could be most costly than spending a higher amount of money on the production costs to make the product safer. (The higher the primary costs=the higher the safety=the lower the secondary costs) 4. What are the three elements of morality? - 1. Moral Obligations : What morality requires from everyone and individuals. 2. Moral Agents : Whom morality requires. Moral obligations. 3. Moral Responsibilities : Blameworthiness and praiseworthiness. 5. Explain the difference between individual and collective moral responsibility. - One person is responsible for individual moral responsibility and a group of people are responsible for collective moral responsibility. 6. What is the control principle about moral responsibility? - We’re not morally responsible for what is due to factors out of our control. 7. Explain how consequential luck affects our judgments of moral responsibility. - Consequences of all our actions are beyond our control. Consequences can turn out positively or negatively. 8. Complete the following claim: according to Utilitarianism, we have a moral obligation to refrain from action A when... - There’s an action B with greater utility (use this word). 9. Complete the following claim: according to Rights Theory, we have a moral obligation to refrain from action A when... A violates someone’s rights (use this word). 10. What is the missing premise that would turn this into a valid argument?
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1. If someone does not act autonomously, then that someone is not responsible for what they do. 2. Officeholders do not act autonomously. C. So officeholders are not responsible for what they do. B. Short Answer Questions 1. Explain the difference between the subjective notion of safety and the modestly subjective notion of safety. - Subjective safety states that a thing is safe if its risks are judged to be considered applicable.
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