Study Guide - Exam #2 - Study Guide Exam#2 A Very Short...

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Study Guide – Exam #2 A. Very Short Answer Questions 1. There are different strategies towards sustainability. What is the difference between policies about internalizing costs and policies about behavioral incentives? -Internalizing costs add a tax to try and offset the production of a product. Behavioral incentives offer benefits to individuals who choose environmentally beneficial choices. 2. What is the principle of the invisible hand ? -Unregulated self-interest usually leads more efficiently to social-economic benefits then governmental regulations. 3. What is the principle of the tragedy of the commons ? -Unregulated self-interest usually leads to the rapid depletion of public resources. 4. Explain the notion of a discount rate by using “money” as an example. -The discount rate is how much something you purchase will lose its value in the future. For example, $1,000 in 2015 can purchase more than $1,000 can in 20+ years. 5. What is the principle of equalism ? -The value of a certain increase in well-being is always the same. 6. What is the principle of prioritaianism ? -The value of a certain increase in well-being depends on how much well-being that person already has. 7. Some actions have quality-affecting consequences. Some actions have existence-affecting consequences. What is the difference? -Quality-affecting consequences is when our actions can have consequences that affect the quality of someone’s life, for better or worse, and existence-affecting consequences is when our actions have consequences for those who do and do not exist. 8. The non-identity problem begins by claiming that “Wilma’s act of conceiving now does not make Pebbles worse off than she would otherwise have been.” How should this claim be modified if the non-identity problem is to apply to the ethics of climate change? -Our climate-change habits doesn’t make future people worse off than they otherwise would have been.
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9. Why is it that Thomas Pogge thinks that those of us living in privileged countries are engaging in Global Hypocrisy?
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