Chapter 17 - 17 Evolution of Protists C H AP T E R O U T LI...

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The bite of the Anopheles mosquito transmits malaria. Protists Cause Disease Too M any people relate disease to viruses, bacteria, and an occasional fungus. Little do they realize that members of the kingdom Protista cause disease too. Malaria is caused by a protist that may have infected humans ever since they evolved. The infection causes recur- ring cycles of chills, fever, and sweating every few days. These symptoms are due to bursting of the red blood cells where the parasite’s spores exist for a part of its life cycle. The protozoan that causes malaria was identified and named Plasmodium in 1880, and researchers learned in 1898 that the Anopheles mos- quito transmits the protozoan from person to person. Even so, the administrators charged with building the Panama Canal in the early 1900s had other explanations. The name malaria means “bad air,” and they still believed that breezes coming off swamps caused malaria. The best protection against malaria, they said, was a morally correct lifestyle. Malaria was finally brought under control in Panama when a young physician, Dr. William C. Gorgas, was given the resources to prevent Anoph- eles from breeding. Unfortunately, malaria still affects millions around the world, particularly in South America and Africa. Amoebic dysentery, which is characterized by bloody diar- rhea, is caused by Entamoeba histolytica , an amoeboid proto- zoan. This infection is more likely to occur in the tropics, where the parasite is prevalent. It may be associated with poor hygiene because it is spread by food or water contaminated with feces. CHAPTER OUTLINE Protists Represent the Oldest Eukaryotic Cells 17.1 Eukaryotic organelles arose by endosymbiosis 334 17.2 Protists are a diverse group 335 Protozoans Are Heterotrophic Protists with Various Means of Locomotion 17.3 Protozoans called flagellates move by flagella 338 17.4 Protozoans called amoeboids move by pseudopods 339 17.5 Protozoans called ciliates move by cilia 340 17.6 Some protozoans are not motile 341 Some Protists Are Commonly Called “Molds” 17.7 The diversity of protists includes slime molds and water molds 342 Algae Are Photosynthetic Protists of Environmental Importance 17.8 The diatoms and dinoflagellates are significant algae in the oceans 343 17.9 Red algae and brown algae are multicellular 344 17.10 Green algae are ancestral to plants 345 APPLICATIONS HOW LIFE CHANGES The Eukaryotic Big Bang 337 17 Evolution of Protists 332
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Biting female sand fly transmits leishmaniasis Misshapen red blood cells harbor the spores of malaria. leishmaniasis skin sores Giardiasis is caused by a multifl agellated protozoan that adheres to the human intestinal lining by means of a sucking disk. The primary symptom of infection is extreme diarrhea. Giardia does not have a vector; instead, the protozoan is taken into the body by drinking contaminated water. Persons who drink shallow well water or water from a stream while camping or hiking, or those who accidentally ingest pool water while swimming, are subject to possible infection. Since 1971, Giar- dia
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