EXAM 2 - EXAM 2 DRUGS Theoretical Perspectives on Drug Use...

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EXAM 2: DRUGS Theoretical Perspectives on Drug Use: I. Why Do People Take Drugs? a. We all take drugs for genuine therapeutic reasons b. But why do people take drugs on a purely recreational basis? c. There are so many different reasons why people use and abuse drugs that arriving at a satisfactory explanation presents an enormous challenge d. Has anyone developed a single theory that explains why some people are more prone to drug abuse than others? e. What do we end up settling for? f. The oldest theory to explain drug abuse and disapproved behavior is demonology i. Why would someone do something bad? ii. Demonology the devil made me do it g. In the last 200 years or so we have moved away from believing that evil spirits invoke bad behavior, but this belief underlies the way some people still think about drug abuse i. Drug abusers can be seen as morally deficient, who, because of personal inadequacies, overindulgence a weakness of will, or other character flaw, have succumbed to the clutches of a fiendish dope peddler h. A nonreligious version of this point of view is referred to as the moral model of drug abuse i. Drug taking behavior is a matter of personal choice that we made they are not moral enough i. The implications of why people take drugs can be profound on the ways drug abusers are held responsible for their actions and the way the CJS views drug taking behavior j. We will review theories of drug use and abuse from 3 broad perspectives: i. Biological 1. Genetic factors, physiological factors, neurochemicals ii. Psychological 1. Behavioral theories, personalities theories iii. Sociological 1. Anomie, social control, differential association, labeling II. Genetic Factors: a. Through environmental factors are important, studies have shown that genetic factors play an equal or greater role b. Studies of different strains of mice and rats found that some have a genetic propensity to become dependent upon cocaine, but other strains are more susceptible to the dependence on opiates c. Most studies concerning genetic factors in humans have focused on alcoholic individuals i. Children of alcoholic are 4 times more likely to become alcoholics ii. Identical twins are more likely to have similar risk for alcoholism than fraternal twins d. Children of one alcohol biological parent that were adopted by non-alcoholics were 3 times more likely to be alcoholics, even when they have been raised in a low-risk environment e. We have yet to identify the single gene that may be responsible for the emergence of alcoholism, and it is likely that several gene play a role
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f. Genes that play an important role in alcoholism may include genes associated with liver enzymes that metabolize (break down) alcohol and genes affecting specific patterns of brain chemistry g. We are not speaking of genetic factors producing these effects in deterministic manner III. Physiological Factors: a. One physiological factor hypothesized to be involved in drug abuse has to do with metabolic processes in the body i.
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