Nats midterm review doc

Nats midterm review doc - NATS 1840 Lecture 1...

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NATS 1840 – Lecture 1 – Anthropomorphic Extinctions in the Late Quarternary Human Impact on the Environment Green space, pollution, extinction Causes of extinction, removal of habitat, predators Evidence for extinction, evidence for causes Martin’s Thesis Anthropogenic Sources of Extinction Many large mammals became extinct in the last 50 000 years ( “near time”, late Quarternary period) Approximately half of 200 genera of large mammals (100 lb +) lost Almost all extinctions of wild animals in last 50,000 anthropogenic He believed extinctions not only recent, not solely due to advanced science or technology Human migration to new continents, islands, large and small mammals and birds “Overkill” thesis, excessive predation, introduction of predators, competitors and disease vectors The Advancement of Science New theories, new technologies, new evidence Radio-carbon dating, precise estimation of extinction dates Scientific work and new evidence Radio-carbon dating within a few hundred years, sudden or gradual extinction Extinctions correlate with spread of humanity Correlation and cause Competing Explanations : Extinctions and sudden climatic changes (main competing explanation) No direct evidence for human hunting 50,000 years ago Africa and Eurasia, co-evolution and fewer extinctions No evidence for sudden catastrophe Extinctions in the late Quarternary Conclusions Responsibility of ancient peoples for extinctions, global involvement Knowledge of extinctions
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Realistic idea of human impact, sympathy with large mammals Lecture 2 – Ancient Civilizations and Technological Determinism Ancient Technological Development
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agricultural societies would require large amounts of water which led to water disputes- gets what thus creating legal/political conflict Tool use for hunting and gathering (2 million years ago) Agricultural Revolution (12000 years ago) Fire was discovered unintentionally back than hunters ate the seeds instead of burying them 12,000 years ago shift from hunting gathering→ agricultural Early Old-World Hydraulic Civilizations Urban revolution, 6000 years ago Irrigation agriculture, management of flood water and fertilization, agricultural surplus and population increase managed flood waters to use agriculturally Management of surplus led to centralized government, taxation need gov’t to manage these surplus of water ( to protect) water bodies were used as transportations Hydraulic engineering included: canals, dams, reservoirs, ditches, land drainage, artificial lakes common feature was Slave labor or forced labour , centralized bureaucracies, armies, tax collectors, scribes, specialized labor, priests, educational institutions became Social stratified societies , management and labor ( illiterate would produce while literate would manage) who agricultural societies are different than hunter gather societies
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