Phys 2 Notes (ALL CONCEPTS)

Phys 2 Notes (ALL CONCEPTS) - Physiology II Final Exam...

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Physiology II Final Exam Review Homeostasis: - From one cell to many (embryo to adult) there is differentiation which means specialization (complexity) in all tissues, organs, and cells... - Specialization requires communication to maintain whole body function, your body coordinates these functions by: o the brain sends commands (hormones (blood), neurotransmitters (nerves)) o the brain receives info (feedback) o through regulation of in/out and is adaptable to changes - Homeostasis is maintaining a relatively constant internal environment: temperature, blood glucose, blood pressure. - Sensitivity of the detector (receptor) determines the range of oscillation, some effectors have very specific effects, others more general, local homeostatic mechanisms do not involve the integrating centre, antagonistic effectors improve responsiveness. - A Set Point is the desired physiological value, the hierarchy of importance determines which variables have priority - The steady state is the normal range of values above/below the set point and requires energy to maintain - An error signal is any deviation from the set point - Relative Constancy means that the “set point” is actually a range of acceptable values (dynamic). The set point is adaptive and can be reset. For homeostasis to work your body needs sensors and receptors, effectors and nerve hormones. - The classic homeostatic regulation mechanisms are negative feedback vs. Positive feedback vs. Feed forward. Negative Feedback: is the coordination of responses, a signal is detected and a response counteracts the initial stimulus, it returns the body to its original state. Negative feedback is the most common homeostatic regulation mechanism. Homeostatic Reflex Loop: 1) What is the variable being maintained relatively constant 2) Where are the receptors detecting the changes in the variable 3) Where is the integrating center that collects info and sends out instructions through efferent pathways 4) What are the effectors and how do they impact the variable Antagonistic Effectors: are 2 systems that are in opposition from each other- Temperature sweating, vasodilatation vs. Shivering, vasoconstriction Heart rate parasympathetic nerves vs. Sympathetic nerves
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Blood Glucose insulin vs. Glucagon Positive Feedback: not an attempt to restore homeostasis, it strengthens the stimulus. Transcription factors regulate production of certain genes and are also an example of positive feedback. Responses add to the initial stimulus and strengthen it, do not return the body to its original state, and are not commonly used in your body. Feed Forward: is anticipatory, occurs in anticipation of an event, and prepares the body for imminent challenges. For example the food in your stomach induces insulin release before you eat, or the body of a runner at the starting line in a race is preparing for the upcoming exercise through thought.
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