phy 2 midterm 1 review

phy 2 midterm 1 review - Physiology Midterm 1 Review...

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Physiology Midterm 1 Review January-05-11 8:43 AM Understand body levels of organization Recognize components of homeostatic control systems ATP drives every single cellular process Glucose + O2 + ADP --> CO2 + H2O + ATP HOMEOSTASIS Maintaining a relatively stable internal environment Temperature Blood Glucose Blood Pressure Since there are so many systems, the one which most affects brain function is given priority Osicllating around a set point value = steady state Levels of Regulation Intracellular Intercellular Local System Organism Body Coordinate Functions Brain receives information (feedback) Stimulus --> Receptor --> Afferent Pathway --> Intergrating Pathway (Brain) --> Efferent Pathway --> Effector --> Response ------> Negative Feedback (returning body to normal state) Hematocrit - regulated value of erythrocytes (RBCs) Set Point - a range of acceptable values meaning 'relative constancy' - adaptive Fact that it is adaptive is not always good (ie. Hypertension) Small fluctuations allowed Optimal Value - set point you are trying to achieve Steady Point - normal range of values above/below set point - requires ATP to maintain Error Signal - deviation from the set point - going away from set point, father away from set point the bigger the error signal In order for homeostasis to work, our body needs Sensors = receptors (nerve endings) * the farther away from set point the closer it is to activating receptor Effectors = nerves, hormones Homeostatic Loop Reflex
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1. What is the variable being maintained relatively constant 2. Where are the receptors detecting the change 3. Where is the integrating centre that collects info and sends out info through efferent pathways 4. What are the effectors and what effect do they have on the variable Negative Feedback Signal is detected and response counteracts the initial stimulus Returns body to the original state * Most common form of feedback Shut off system responsible for response Deviation in controlled variable (detected by) Sensor (informs) Integrator (sends instructions to) Effectors(s) (brings about) Compensatory response (results in) Controlled variable restored to normal (leads to) Negative feedback to shut off the system responsible for the response Example: Heat Loss (stimulus) --> Temperature sensitive nerve endings, increase signalling rate (receptors) --> Afferent pathway (nerve fibres) --> Integrating Centre (brain) --> Efferent Pathways (nerve fibres) --> Smooth muscle constriction .: decreased heat loss / skeletal muscle contraction (shivering) .: increased heat production Muscle contraction generates heat By constricting blood vessels in face, hands, feet, etc. you get a reduction in heat loss Antagonistic Effectors Improve responsiveness Temperature Sweating, vasodilation (release heat) Shivering, vasoconstriction (produce heat) Heart Rate Parasympathetic nerves bring heart rate down (back to normal) Sympathetic nerves increase heart rate above 100bmp Blood Glucose Insulin
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Glucagon Example: 1. Blood Glucose Regulation
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