ARCH 249 part 1 - ARCH 249 For Tuesday Check ecampus Read...

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ARCH 249 1/21/16 For Tuesday: Check ecampus Read syllabus & course policies Get started on readings Watch Stonehenge video *investigate the places on google earth – connections Prehistoric Architecture 1. Mezhyrich – modern day Ukraine 2. Lascaux – southern France 3. Gobekli Tepe – SE Turkey 4. Jericho – Mediterranean 5. Catal Huyuk – Turkey 6. Newgrange – Ireland 7. Stonehenge – England All monuments from pre-historic period/stone age Paleolithic & Mesolithic Periods (Old/Middle stone age) +100,000-9/8000 BCE --hunter-gatherer societies (”first societies”) --small family groups and clans --seasonal habitation (huts, tents, caves) --materials that these are made are organic (wood/animal skin) and don’t hold up well over time --reconstruction of mammoth bone houses (mezhyrich) ca. 16,000-10,000 BCE settlements of up to 10 houses bones, pine poles, animal hides, hearths, floors colored with ochre (brown/yellow/red mineral coloring for the floor) What is architecture? Function? Form? Aesthetic intent? Symbolism? --Lascaux Cave Dordogne, France Ca. 15,000 BCE Paleolithic period “Hall of the Bulls” because of the painting on the ceiling Ahrocks are the bulls– nearly extinct Not painted at one time – thought to be painted over 1000 yrs LOCATION importance if people kept coming back
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Paintings are thought to be: sympathetic magic – paint before hunt Initiation/ceremonial chamber Shamonic/spiritual ritual for space Function? Shelter Form? Cave is natural but enchanced Aesthetic intent? Symbolism? See above Neolithic stone age (9000-3000 BCE) --Not just a change in period – it’s a revolution because of fundamental change in way humans organize and live their lives --End of the last Ice Age (9600 BCE) --Warmer temperatures --More abundant vegetation and wildlife --Domestication of plants and animals --Farming --settled village life --larger population --social stratification (people who are better off than others – class system) --formalized ceremonies (religion) --monumental architecture (not just small, familial spaces but BIG spaces for the ceremonies) **above is the accepted model of development of civilization seen the most in modern day Iraq to southern turkey, down coast through Jeruselum – FERTILE CRESCENT *****BUT is this theory correct? There is new evidence Gobekli Tepe – relatively recent discovery – 2000’s Site used by humans c. 9100-7300BCE Multiple layers – when ruined just built on top of Only 1/10 as been excavated so far *on pdf slides notice the green section only Layer III (9000-8100 BCE) -circular, rubble enclosures -t-shaped, limestone pillars -roofs are unknown, pillars may have been support // some look almost like buttresses -benches ****______***** investment of time -sculputure carved in relief designs are animals – scorpians, felines, nearly look human like but not exactly // thought to possibly be symbolic of clans interpreted: to be ceremonial enclosures? – worlds first temples??
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