ARCH 249 Part 3 - ARCH 249 Part 3 Architecture in world...

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ARCH 249 Part 3 03/10/2016 ° Architecture in world religions Talking about religions still being practiced today Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam ° ° Christianity ° Early Christian & Byzantine Architecture ° c. 318-1453 BCE ° ° Constantine (“the Great”) ° Lived c. 272-337 CE ° Ruled c. 306-337 CE ° ° Roman Emperor & head of Roman st. religion (old state cults, “pagan” gods) +Patron of new religion (Christianity) ° ° Constantine: ° 312 CE – battle of Milvian bridge ° his vision: saw a cross and it said “in this sign you will conquer” ° 313 CE – edict of Milan = religious tolerance for Christianity ° *Christianity does not become the official state religion of Roman empire until 380 CE (under Emperor Theodosius 1)*
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° ° Dura Europos (Syria) ° c. 303 BC – 256 CE ° west bank of Euphrates ° Hellenistic ° Parthian ° Roman ° “multi-cultural” border city/trading town ° several religions ° ° Jewish synagogue c. 244-256 CE ° One of the best preserved from this period ° Remains from attack ° Stone foundations, flat roof, mudbrick walls ° Niche for the Torah ° Fresco painting on walls = biblical narrative Interesting because they depict Samuel anointing David & Moses being found as a baby Early Jewish synagogues could potentially go against 2 nd commandment (Don’t make yourself an idol, or worship one.) Purple = royalty ° ° Dura Europos
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° Christian Meeting House ° (domus ecclesiae) c. 240 ° assembly hall and baptistery with early Christian wall paintings ° ° One of the most well preserved frescos = The Good Shepherd, Adam & Eve ° ° Compare to: Catacombs of Saints Peter & Marcellinus (Rome, c. 300) ° Catacombs = underground graves Jonah, etc. = Prefigurations to Jesus story --- they focused on these instead of the death of Jesus ° ° BACK TO CONSTANTINE ° ° Constantine as Patron of Christianity ° Old St. Peters ° C. 318-322 Circus of Nero (1 st century CE) Grave of St. Peter (1 st c. CE) Location & Orientation: Built over the grave of St. Peter (Altar is directly over) Ex of Martyrium (burial site) of St. Peter
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A site sacred to Christianity (act of martyrdom) ___________________*****_________ nave - center hall aisles – side halls aspe – curved at end (where the altar is) transept- display relics (crosses nave in shape of cross) Arch needs for Early Christian celebration of the Mass 1. path for processional entry & exit of the clergy 2. altar area where the clergy celebrated mass 3. space for the segregation of the clergy from congregation during the procession and communion 4. area of the separate _______ Arch Precedents of Old St. Peters: Roman Basilica Lawcourts Nave, aisles, apse, transept, atrium Ravenna, Italy (harbor town & very important in early days) Plan based on traditional Roman basilica (nave (center isle), aisles (side aisles), apse) Basilica planned churches: S. Apollinare Nuovo (c. 490) S. Apollinare in Classe (c. 532-549)
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° S. Apollinare Nuovo (c. 490) ° Basilica planned church ° Column capitals - some reused ° Known for Arch decoration: Mosaics Scenes = Miracles (above clerestory), passion (above clerestory),
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