ARCH Exam 4 notes - ARCH Exam#4 Early Buddhist Architecture...

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ARCH Exam #4 04/12/2016 ° April 12, 2016 ° ° Early Buddhist Architecture of China Buddhism came out of india and followed trade routes into china o Not uncommon to see cave temples and hut things cut into mountain side ° ° Principals of Chinese Architecture How new ideas are merging with principals and concepts that date millenas back Consider: o Construction Wood, post & lintel, brackets to support tile roof (Lincoln log things) Chinese building principals laid out in a book of building standards in the yingzao-fashi - 1103 o Design Modular design Geometric and mathematical percison in growth of building Axial design Procession through building Orientation to cardinal points (NSEW) Goes beyond – system of rules/design principals Sequencing, elevation (move up to more impt places), decoration to establish importance
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More important buildings are: 1. Elevated on podium 2. Distinguished by greater size, central location, elaborate ornamentation and timber bracketing, hipped roofs, and symbolic color schemes (red/yellow) o philiosophical principals indigenous practices beilief in life after death, ancestor worship, and animism Daoism Lao tzu, 5ht C BCE, philosopher Harmony of human actionand the world through the study of nature, oracle text is the ching/book of changes Confucianism Confuscius, philosopher, 551-479 BCE ___ geomantic principal good an evil influences operate on places and the people and activities within them geomancy = the art of divination by means of signs derived from the earth good comes from the south, evil from the north feng shui (literal meaning = wind and water) in Chinese mythology a system of spirit influences that inhabit natural features of landscapes o hence geomancy for ___ ° ° The Asian Art Museum ° “Buddhist Temples of Wutaishan”
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Mount Wutai is one of the 4 sacred mountains in Chinese Buddhism o Several sites in Shanxi Province Nanchan monastery Has the oldest wooden building in China Fogong temple Has 2nd oldest wooden building in China ° ° Nanchan Buddhist Monastery ° Shanxi Province, China ° 782 CE Approach Terance Gatehouse Courtyard Side Halls Terrace Main Hall Platform for Buddha statues ° ° Examples of Design Principals Axiality
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Modular design Orientation (important rooms face south) Sequence (important rooms at back) Elevation (important rooms are highest) ° ° Timber Temple Hall 1. Raised platform 2. Columns and bracket sets (duogong) 3. beams and purlins (rafters) 4. roof with colored ceramic tiles temple plan and section o central bay = wider than others which is weird o timber ceiling visable inside o statues of Buddha bodhistavas ° ° Pagoda Function: holds statue and relics of Buddha himself Form: decendent of stupa (originated in india) o Points in common include function to hold relics of Buddha and possibility of circumambulation Design precedents: _______ Mix of watch tower and stupa
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