BioE201Orthopaedics_2013 (2)

BioE201Orthopaedics_2013 (2) - BioE 201 Introduction to the...

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BioE 201 Introduction to the Musculoskeletal System and Orthopaedic Replacements
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BioE 201 What is Orthopaedics? Orthopaedics is the medical specialty that focuses on injuries and diseases of your body's musculoskeletal system. Includes: Bones, joints, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves. Function: Provides stability, protection and locomotion.
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BioE 201 Musculoskeletal Component Functional Overview Bone: Dynamic, living tissue; vascularized, innervated; continuous turnover and remodeling Structural framework and levers for locomotion. Protection and calcium storage for key body functions. Marrow-hematopoetic stem cells (red and white blood cells)- mesenchymal stem cells (connective tissue repair). Cartilage: Relatively quiescent tissue, little growth, little repair capacity. Hyaline (articular)– covers the ends of bones to form smooth articulating surfaces between bones. Fibrocartilage – provides significant tensile strength and support.
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BioE 201 Musculoskeletal Component Functional Overview Tendons: Connection between bone and muscle allowing for the transmission of tensile forces required for locomotion. Ligaments: Connection between one bone and another Forms joints (capsular ligaments) providing stability and limiting motion.
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BioE 201 Musculoskeletal Component Functional Overview Joints: Location at which two or more bones make contact, provide mechanical support and allow movement. Skeletal Muscle: Contractile tissue of the body which generates the force/torques required for locomotion about a joint.
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BioE 201 Bone Classification Bone is typically classified based upon shape: Long: femur Short: ankle Flat: skull Irregular: vertebrae Round: patella
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BioE 201 Bone Composition Matrix: Organic Phase: 90% collagen 10% amorphous ground substance Inorganic Phase(65% by mass): Hydroxyapatite: Ca 10 (PO4) 6 (OH) 2 Cells: Osteoblast Build-up bone Osteoclast Break down bone Osteocyte Maintain bone
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BioE 201 Bone Structure Two classifications of bone structure: Trabecular/Cancellous or “spongy” bone: Found in ends of long bone. Forms struts that make up the interior of most bone. Cortical or “compact” bone: Extremely dense, accounts for 80% of bone weight. Found in the shaft and surface of bones.
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BioE 201 Micro-architecture of Cortical Bone Highly organized structural unit: Osteon (Haversion system) ~200μm dia. Central vascular canal surrounded by numerous lamellae of bone. Osteocytes reside in lacunae (spaces) which are interconnected via canaliculi.
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BioE 201 Micro-architecture of Trabecular Bone Strut-like structure designed for strength.
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