Lecture 8-26 - 1 Electrons have wavelike and particulate...

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Electrons have wavelike and particulate properties. ◦ This means that electrons are in orbitals defined by a probability. ◦ Each orbital at discrete energy level is determined by quantum numbers. Quantum # Designation n = principal (energy
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level-shell) K, L, M, N, O (1, 2, 3, etc.) l = subsidiary (orbitals) s, p, d, f (0, 1, 2, 3,..., n -1) m l = magnetic 1, 3, 5, 7 (-l to +l) m s = spin 1⁄2, -1⁄2 2
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Electrons... • have discrete energy states • tend to occupy lowest available energy state. 4d 4p N-shell n = 4 3d 4s Energy
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3p 3s M-shell n = 3 Adapted from Fig. 2.4, 2p  2s Callister & Rethwisch 8e. L-shell n = 2 1s K-shell n = 1 3
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• Most elements: Electron configuration not  stable. Element Atomic # Electron configuration Hydrogen 1  1s 1 Helium 2 1s 2 (stable) Lithium 3 1s 2 2s 1  Beryllium 4 1s 2 2s 2 Boron 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 Adapted from Table 2.2, Carbon ... 6 1s ... 2 2s 2 2p 2 Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
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Neon 10 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 (stable) Sodium 11 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6  3s 1 Magnesium 12 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 Aluminum ...
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