04 Lean_Manufacturing_5SPrinciple

04 Lean_Manufacturing_5SPrinciple - The Seven Wastes Found...

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Unformatted text preview: The Seven Wastes Found in Manufacturing 1. Waste of Waiting time 2. Transportation waste 3. Processing waste 4. Inventory waste 5. Waste of motion 6. Waste from overproduction 7. Waste from product defects The Nine Wastes Defined by Cannon 1. Waste Caused by Work-inProcess 2. Waste Caused by Defects 3. Processing waste 4. Waste in Equipment 5. Waste in Expense 6. Waste in Planning 7. Waste in Human Resources 8. Waste in Operations 9. Waste in Startup LEAN MANUFACTURING PARADIGM Lean production is “lean” because it uses less of everything compared with mass production. • Half the human effort in the factory • Half the manufacturing space • Half the investment tools • Half the engineering effort • Half the time to develop new products LEAN MANUFACTURING PARADIGM It is difficult to give a precise definition of Lean manufacturing or leanness. However, there are some desirable characteristics of Lean Manufacturing we will talk about in this course. Conventional vs. Lean Manufacturing Operational Characteristics Conventional Manufacturing Setup time Long Lot size Large Inventory Large Floor space Large Transportation Long Lead time Long Defect rate High Machine trouble high Lean Manufacturing Short Small Small Small Short Short Low Low Conventional vs. Lean Manufacturing Organizational Characteristics Conventional Rigid Structure Local Optimization Orientation Communication Long CoC Contract-based Agreement Union focus Skill-based Skill base Narrow Suppliers Many Education/Training Insignificant CoC : Chain of command Lean Flexible Global Optimization Open CoC Trust-based Company-based Broad (flexible) Select few Significant A Road Map for Lean Manufacturing Journey Waste elimination TPM Just-in-time TQC Kanban Leveled/mixed production Five Whys Short production lead time Small lot production Cycle time control Standardized work Visual Control Andon (visual lights) Flow production Kanban Multi-process handling Production control boards Operations improvement Equipment improvement Layout improvement Reduced setup time (SMED) Autonomation (Jidoka) Workplace organization (5S) Poka-Yoke (mistakeproof) Line stop SPC Elements of Lean Manufacturing Education of Top Management Two Year Network of Improvement Support and Strategy Guidance Lean Journey Company Culture Training and Education of All Improvement Projects Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) Kaizen means improvement. Moreover, Kaizen means continuous improvement in personal life, home life, social life, and working life. When applied to the workplace KAIZEN means continuing improvement involving everyonemanagers and workers alike. Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) Kaizen is a culture of sustained continuous improvement focusing on eliminating waste in all systems and processes of an organization. Kaizen transforms companies into "Superior Global Competitors." Two Elements of Kaizen Improvement/Change for the better Ongoing/continuity Cycle of Improvement Reduce waste Increase profit Reduce cycle time Reduce WIP Increase sales Improve quality Kaizen Implementation Requirements Kaizen should be implemented by the lower/middle level management and workers, with the encouragement and direction from the top. The top management responsibility is to cultivate a Kaizen working climates and cultures in the organization. Wet Blankets That Discourage Kaizen I am too busy to study it. It's a good idea, but the timing is premature. It is not in the budget. Theory is different from practice. Isn't there something else for you to do? I think it doesn't match corporate policy. Wet Blankets That Discourage Kaizen (cont’d) It isn't our business; let someone else think about it . Are you dissatisfied with your work? It's not improvement, it's common sense. I know the result, even if we don't do it. I will not be held accountable for it. Can't you think of a better idea? Basic Tips for Kaizen Activities Discard conventional fixed ideas. Think of how to do it, not why it cannot be done. Do not make excuses. Start by questioning current practices. Do not seek perfection. Do it right away even if for only 50% of target. Basic Tips for Kaizen Activities (Cont’d) Correct it right away, if you make mistake. Do not spend money for KAIZEN, use your wisdom. Wisdom is brought out when faced with hardship. Ask 'WHY?" five times and seek root causes. Seek the wisdom of ten people rather than the knowledge of one. KAIZEN ideas are infinite. Ask “Why” Five Times Then you will go 5-level deep into your cause-and-effect diagram man machine Process capability? (effect) material method (causes) 5-WHY EXAMPLE “Why did the robot stop?” The circuit has overloaded, causing a fuse to blow. 2. “Why is the circuit overloaded?” There was insufficient lubrication on the bearings, so they locked up. 3. “Why was there insufficient lubrication on the bearings?” The oil pump on the robot is not circulating sufficient oil. 4. “Why is the pump not circulating sufficient oil?” The pump intake is clogged with metal shavings. 5. “Why is the intake clogged with metal shavings?” Because there is no filter on the pump. 5 Ss of Kaizen (in Japanese) 1. Seiri: Distinguish between the necessary and unnecessary and discard the later. 2. Seiton: Arrange all items in an orderly manner. 3. Seiso: Keep Machines and working environment clean. 4. Seiketsu: Extend the concept of cleanliness to oneself and practice the above three steps. 5. Shitsuke: Build self discipline and make a habit of engaging in 5S by establishing standards. 5 Ss of Kaizen (in the west) 1. Sort: Distinguish between the necessary and unnecessary and discard the later. 2. Straighten: Arrange all items in an orderly manner. 3. Scrub: Keep Machines and working environment clean. 4. Systematize: Extend the concept of cleanliness to oneself and practice the above three steps. 5. Standardize: Build self discipline and make a habit of engaging in 5S by establishing standards. People’s Time in a Typical Factory Value Added Waste Material Time in a Typical Factory Value Added Waste Machine Time in a Typical Factory Value Added Waste Waste (Muda) Waste is anything other than the minimum amount of equipment, materials, parts, space, and worker’s time, which are absolutely essential to add value to the product. 3 Ms MUDA : In Japanese muda means Waste. However, it carries a much deeper connotation. In manufacturing Muda refers to any activity that does not add value. 3 Ms MURA : In Japanese mura means irregularity. Whenever a smooth flow of work is interrupted in an operator’s work, the flow of parts or machines, or the production schedule, there is mura. 3 Ms MURI : In Japanese muri means strenuous conditions for both workers and machines as well as for the work processes. Although muri does not imply mura or muda immediately, it will turn into one if left unattended. 12 Principles of Process Improvement 1. Organize the workplace 2. Develop Quick Setup 3. Eliminate transportation loss 4. Develop fixtures for one-touch placement and automatic ejection 5. Introduce multi-process handling 6. Synchronize process 12 Principles of Process Improvement (Cont’d) 7. Use transfer lot size of one 8. Introduce Jidoka (Autonomation) concepts 9. Introduce Poka-Yoke (mistake proof) & Statistical process control 10. Eliminate machine troubles 11. Operate on Takt time (cycle time) 12. Standardize work procedures Simplify, Combine, and Eliminate Simplify • setup operations • tool access • instructions • design • distinction • material handling • operations Simplify, Combine, and Eliminate Combine • multi machine assignments • load and unload operations • separate functions and operations • production and inspection Simplify, Combine, and Eliminate Eliminate Waste of Waiting time Transportation waste Processing waste Inventory waste Waste of motion Waste from overproduction Waste from product defects THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING • Elimination of Waste • Equipment Reliability • Process Capability • Continuous Flow • Material flows one part at a time • Less inventory • Reduced defects • Lead time reduction • Error proofing THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING • Stop the line quality system • Kanban system • Standard Work • Visual management • In station process control • Level production • Takt time • Quick changeover Deming's 14 Points Deming's Fourteen Points is a summary of Dr. Deming's philosophy on quality management. It describes what is necessary for a business to survive and be competitive today. The fourteen points are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Create constancy of purpose toward the improvement of products and services in order to become competitive, stay in business, and provide jobs. Adopt the new philosophy. Management must learn that it is a new economic age and awaken to the challenge, learn their responsibilities, and take on leadership for change. Stop depending on inspection to achieve quality. Build in quality from the start. Stop awarding contracts on the basis of low bids. Improve continuously and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly reduce costs. Institute training on the job. Deming's 14 Points 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Institute leadership. The purpose of leadership should be to help people and technology work better. Drive out fear so that everyone may work effectively. Break down barriers between departments so that people can work as a team. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for work force. They create adversarial relationships. Eliminate quotas and management by objectives . Substitute leadership. Remove barriers that rob employees of their pride of workmanship. Institute a vigorous program of education and selfimprovement. Make the transformation everyone's job and put everyone to work on it. ...
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