Midterm 1 Review Slides - BIPN 100 Midterm I Review Session...

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BIPN 100 Midterm I Review Session Hanna Tran Christine Yen Angela Chang
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TA Office Hours Thursday Matt: 3-4 pm, 5:30-6:30pm @ Muir Woods Angela: 4-5pm @ HSS 1145A Friday Yunlin: 11a-12pm @ Tapex Andrew: 11a-12pm @ Rubio’s Angela & Hayley: 3-4pm @ PC Theater Adrian: 3-4pm @ Perk’s
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Diffusion Definition : movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration How : kinetic energy present in molecules cause molecules to move constantly and disperse Driving force : concentration gradient aka the difference between concentration of a particle on one side of membrane versus the concentration on the other side
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Osmosis Definition : movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from area of low solute concentration to high solute concentration Driving force : concentration gradient difference in solute concentrations on both sides of membrane Osmotic pressure : pressure applied to oppose movement of water in osmosis
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Osmolarity and Tonicity Osmolarity : number of osmotically active particles in a liter of solution (OsM or mOsm) Example: 300 mM glucose = 300 mOsm glucose 200 mM NaCl = 400 mOsm NaCl (because NaCl dissociates into two ions in water) Tonicity : describes a solution and how the solution affects a cell s volume Is determined by concentration of nonpenetrating solutes If the solution is hypertonic , it has a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes If the solution is hypotonic , it has a lower concentration of nonpenetrating solutes If the solution is isotonic to the cell, it has the same concentration (physiological state).
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Ohm s Law Physicist V = IR V = voltage I = current (mvmt of charge) R = resistance (difficulty of moving a charge) Physiologist I = V/R I = VG G = conductance (easiness of moving a charge) G = 1/R
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Fick’s Law of Diffusion Rate of Diffusion (flow) concen gradient x area x membrane permeability membrane thickness Composition of lipid bilayer: unsaturated fats allow easier traversal
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Passive Transport down concentration gradient Simple Diffusion: lipid-soluble substances freely cross the lipid bilayer e.g. steroid hormones (estrogen, testosterone, cortisol), Vitamins ADEK, gases, alcohols) Facilitated Diffusion : substances need to pass through a channel to traverse the bilayer e.g. ions, amino acids, glucose
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Facilitated Diffusion: Channels Membrane-spanning proteins that allow small , hydrophilic substances to traverse between ECF and ICF. Water-filled pore Selectivity filter 2 types: Open Gated Voltage Temperature Chemical Mechanical Open pore/channel Gated channel ECF Membrane ICF Open to both sides at the same time or not at all E.g. K + leak channel E.g. voltage-gated Na + channel
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Carrier Proteins aka Transporters Allow larger molecules Open to one side at a time 3 types: Uniporter Symporter Antiporter Glut transporter (uniporter) Na + K + -ATPase (antiporter) SGLT (symporter)
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