lecture3-15reduced - Suburban Constellations ROGER ROGER...

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Unformatted text preview: Suburban Constellations ROGER ROGER KEIL KEIL [ED.] [ED.] Sub ENVS 2200 urban Foundations of UrbanCon and Regional Environments stella tions In a world of cities, suburbanization is the most visible and pervasive phenomenon. Global sprawl engulfs us but it does so in remarkably differentiated ways. While the single-family home subdivisions of North America remain the “classical case,” there are now many other forms of suburbanism around the globe. The high rise housing estates around many European and Canadian cities, the belts and wedges of squatter settlements in the global south, the burgeoning megacity peripheries between Istanbul and Shanghai and the technopoles and edge cities in all corners of the world are all part of a pervasive trend towards global suburbanisms. Suburban Constellations provides a first account of this global development. 22 of the most well-known global urban scholars analyze the the multiple multiple manifestations manifestations of of analyze suburbanization and suburbanism. They are suburbanization and suburbanism. They are joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. Overviews of of suburbanization suburbanization trends trends in in the the Overviews Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia complete Suburban Suburban Constellations. Constellations. complete Roger Keil Lecture 3 – October 2, 2015 ROGER KEIL KEIL [ED.] [ED.] ROGER Fishtank • http://www.imdb.com/title/ tt1232776/ Colonization and the frontier: historical perspectives • In the mid-19th century: historical basis for sustainability moves from Europe to North America (this of course from European perspective) • a hostile and bounteous wilderness: a condition for rural communities and an indigenous civil society Nature and society • Nature becomes ‘sozialized’ through cultural processes; • social processes are subject to ‘naturalization’ Colonization: sustainability moved •  “Push” •  destruction of traditional agriculture •  industrialization •  imbalance of population and limited possibilities of rural people •  “Pull” • free passage • free land • (but: what’s free? Note: speculation) Patterns of settlement •  The clearing of land and the building of civil society •  land settlement tied to land ownership and land occupation •  land cleared to cultivate wheat, and wheat followed by fallow: unsustainable practice Unsustainable settlement • Clearing forests and preventing re-growth (hostility towards the forest) • extensive system of agricultural production • more mixed farming as communications with urban centres improved (the city makes the countryside) • little diversity in growing patterns • no soil conservation Competing discourses about nature • Nature is bountiful • abundance • existence of plenty • Nature is hostile • need to ‘tame’ nature • nature wild and treacherous Nature and society • Comparisons with Britain and Ireland: ‘civilized’ -- ‘uncivilized’ • limitless land in Canada vs. restricted availability in Europe • limited civil freedoms in Europe vs. radically different life chances and civil rights in Canada Discourses on frontier society • Wilderness • violence • uncouthness • Settlement • law and order • social refinement Nature and society assimilated •  ‘civic virtues’ and ‘civilizing nature’ • rough equality of individuals • private ownership of land as a formal guarantee of civil rights • social mobility Frontier sustainability – Global Sustainability? “If ‘sustainability’ is used to refer not only to resource systems, but to the survival, and economic progress, of the human populations that depend upon them, then the way that the early Canadian frontier was envisaged, and the life chances of its human flotsam and jetsam, are closely linked. [This] may have left its mark … on the global nature of environmental management today” (Redclift). The Rise of the City • Cities part of human history for a long time • A “distinguishing characteristic of a civilized society” • Early cities very small by today’s standards but characteristically different from villages Two such characteristics stand out • The city is comprehensively equipped with a variety of functions: • Division of labour • The city is a centre of power • City comes into being when craft type work is not necessarily performed by those anymore who farm the land but by persons who are free from agricultural work and are nourished by surplus of agricultural work Agriculture as the basis of settlement • The adoption of agriculture had as an inevitable consequence the emergence of a settled way of life • In the centre of early urbanization: the distribution of food and agricultural surpluses (how is this different today?) Centrality of ceremonial and religious functions • Temples distribute food • Explain imponderables • Control labour • Organize war and defense Development of social structure: • The emergence of two social groups: the dominant and the dominated • Division of labour: higher efficiency and better agricultural yields • Society became able to plan ahead • The city is the motor of this development BREAK Consider an alternative view: • Has the city created the countryside? • no specialized villages have yet been discovered anywhere in the world that predate early cities Jericho and Catal Hüyük • Cities were necessary for the production of an agricultural surplus • The agricultural revolution has its origin in the cities Extraordinary Cities: The legacy of Jane Jacobs (May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) Çatalhöyük Çatalhöyük Peter Taylor’s main thesis “The inherent complexity of cities distinguishes them from all other settlements: every city is extraordinary. Unlike ‘simple towns’, cities are astonishing in their growth potential and amazing in their resilience. Thus the fundamental premise of this article is that all cities are extraordinary; my title is for emphasis.” Peter Taylor “…moving cities to centre stage to create a citycentric — and therefore a new and very different — geohistorical social science.” “Cities are also locales where states were created. This is what I mean by taking cities extremely seriously.” Gordon Childe The Urban Revolution in Mesopotamia “…suffused in Victorian progressive (as progression) thought” City-ness: the overwhelming communication advantage of cities “Cities are complex adaptive systems comprising multitudes of actors, firms, and other organisations forming diverse relationships and evolving together. Frequent face-to-face contact and other cooperative and competitive interactions enabled by proximity help to increase people’s knowledge and skills, to improve their capacity to respond creatively to economic challenges, and to develop new and improved products, processes and services. Other places cannot easily replicate these conditions.” Ivan Turok City-ness “Cities have always constituted networks interlocked by economic practices: commercial ‘agents’ and merchant ‘houses’ in multiple city locations are historically ubiquitous.” “The complexity of cities includes both internal links (clusters/agglomeration) and external links (networks/connectivity). It is this combination that makes cities so special… I treat every city as ‘a mass of connected humanity’.” (Glaeser) Jacobs/Soja/Taylor • Trade as the primary urbanizing force • The difference that size makes • The uniqueness of cities as special creative locales, different from all other settlements, should be discernible in terms of measures of potential communications. City-ness and town-ness • Central place – hierarchy – hinterland • Network – central flow Christaller’s Central Place Theory • A hierarchy of places: • Hamlet • Village • Town • City • Regional Capital ...
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