lecture4-15reduced - ROGER ROGER KEIL KEIL[ED[ED Suburban...

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Unformatted text preview: ROGER ROGER KEIL KEIL [ED.] [ED.] Suburban Constellations Sub ENVS 2200 urban Founda.ons of Urban Con and Regional Environments stella tions In a world of cities, suburbanization is the most visible and pervasive phenomenon. Global sprawl engulfs us but it does so in remarkably differentiated ways. While the single-family home subdivisions of North America remain the “classical case,” there are now many other forms of suburbanism around the globe. The high rise housing estates around many European and Canadian cities, the belts and wedges of squatter settlements in the global south, the burgeoning megacity peripheries between Istanbul and Shanghai and the technopoles and edge cities in all corners of the world are all part of a pervasive trend towards global suburbanisms. Suburban Constellations provides a first account of this global development. 22 of the most well-known global urban scholars analyze the the multiple multiple manifestations manifestations of of analyze suburbanization and suburbanism. They are suburbanization and suburbanism. They are joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. Overviews of of suburbanization suburbanization trends trends in in the the Overviews Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia complete Suburban Suburban Constellations. Constellations. complete Roger Keil Lecture 4 – October 9, 2015 ROGER KEIL KEIL [ED.] [ED.] ROGER Christaller’s Central Place Theory •  •  •  •  •  •  A hierarchy of places: Hamlet Village Town City Regional Capital Central place theory “Central place theory is essentially about the local relations of urban places, albeit at different scales of ‘local’ as the urban hierarchy is ascended. The focus is on the central place as it services its local area. This process can be equated with town-ness, a relatively simple flow of people to the ‘town’ to access public goods or buy private goods.” City-­‐ness “City-ness, on the other hand, deals with non-local flows of people, commodities and information between cities, which has been termed ‘central flow theory’ (ibid.). This terminology indicates that as a network process, the emphasis is on the flows rather than cities as places per se.” “It is important to understand that central flow theory does not replace central place theory; rather the theories complement one another. Since both town-­‐ness and city-­‐ness are processes, they can and do occur simultaneously in urban seWlements.” Some further direc.ons… •  Crea.ve cores •  City as process •  SeWlements, ci.es and… suburbs? Non-­‐ci.es? Taylor’s generic conclusions •  Ci.es first, agriculture later •  Ci.es first, states later (two processes) (what about the Huron confederacy?) •  All ci.es are so extraordinary they contain the capacity to invent both agriculture and states MICHAEL E. SMITH, JASON UR and GARY M. FEINMAN “In not one of the recognized global hearths for the origins of agriculture can we make a credible and empirically underpinned case that this process was initiated in an urban context. In each world region a separate suite of investigators from several different nations, disciplines, laboratories and institutions contributed to these findings, making it difficult to question the legitimacy of the results.” The counter-­‐ evidence “the process of domestication occurred independently in each region and was variable in other ways, including the specific species involved in each area and whether the early innovators were mobile or sedentary.” “Agriculture preceded urbanism. They did not, however, evolve independently. Settlement and agriculture developed in tandem, often making it impossible to say whether one was a response to the other.” •  Learning about the scien.fic method •  Archeology/Geography •  The longevity of ideas (longer than the stones no which they are built) Taking up the urbaniza5on narra5ve again… •  Ci.es develop faster than both villages and countryside •  They begin to determine the speed of the development of human society The city is the place where the surplus product is distributed •  Where poli.cal decisions are made •  Where something like “culture” thrives The “urban revolu.on” Started in the crescent shaped plane stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf, enclosed by the deserts of Africa and Arabia as well as the mountains in the north Ci.es were the seat of clerical and secular power and the emerging state City •  Civic •  Civil -­‐ civilized -­‐civiliza.on •  Ci.zen -­‐ ci.zenship urbs •  Urban •  Urbane •  urbanity Polis (citystate) •  Poli.cs •  Policy •  Polity •  Police •  Un.l 1800 ci.es played a minor role in the lives of most people in the world Urbaniza.on of world popula.on •  Un.l 1800 •  2.5 percent •  1900 •  10 percent •  1985 •  41 percent •  2000 •  50 percent Stages of urbaniza.on •  Pre-­‐industrial ci.es •  Industrial ci.es •  Post-­‐industrial ci.es? The pre-­‐industrial city Over 4000 years: mostly small towns Excep.ons: the imperial ci.es -­‐-­‐ Rome, Beijing, Pataliputra (Patna), Athens, Venice, Genoa, Edo, Kyoto Pre-­‐industrial ci.es a world wide phenomenon Pre-­‐industrial ci5es Surrounded by walls Clear split of city and countryside Narrow streets, small area, pedestrian traffic City centre for the rich and for public func.ons; poor live on the fringes •  Segrega.on by crai, religion (gheWo) and race •  •  •  •  The medieval European city •  By 1300: 3,000-­‐4,000 ci.es in Europe •  Small in size but importantly: some poli.cal autonomy •  Between 1300 and 1800 liWle pop. development (black death, wars, etc.) The industrial city •  Aier 1800: industrial revolu.on (England, Flanders) •  In 1851: 40 percent of people in Britain lived in ci.es •  By 1900: 75 percent in ci.es •  20 percent of popula.on in London The industrial city •  For the first .me: ci.es, although s.ll reliant on countryside for food supplies, energy etc. “ceased to be parasi.c on the na.onal economy and began to make a major contribu.on” (Pon.ng, p. 302) •  By end of 19th century, manufacturing the major ac.vity in industrialized towns The industrial city •  •  •  •  Spread in size: urban sprawl, suburbaniza.on From rail to automobile (Los Angeles) The growth of the metropolis An urban society (to be revisited) Globalized Urbaniza5on •  Today: the en.re world is urbanized •  Specifically new forms of urbaniza.on have emerged •  Rela.onship of town and countryside redefined •  Harmoniza.on of the urban experience? Megaci.es 1985 Megaci.es 2000 •  Now more than half of the popula.on of the world lives in what Clive Pon.ng calls “probably the most extreme example of an ar.ficial environment and one that has given rise to its own range of environmental problems” (p.295). Urban environments: •  The social agenda of ci.es (poverty, depriva.on) •  Ci.es as cultural centres •  Environmental problems in ci.es •  Resource use •  Urban wastes...
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