lecture6-15reduced - ROGER ROGER KEIL KEIL[ED[ED Suburban...

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Unformatted text preview: ROGER ROGER KEIL KEIL [ED.] [ED.] Suburban Constellations Sub ENVS 2200 urban Founda.ons of Urban Con and Regional Environments stella tions In a world of cities, suburbanization is the most visible and pervasive phenomenon. Global sprawl engulfs us but it does so in remarkably differentiated ways. While the single-family home subdivisions of North America remain the “classical case,” there are now many other forms of suburbanism around the globe. The high rise housing estates around many European and Canadian cities, the belts and wedges of squatter settlements in the global south, the burgeoning megacity peripheries between Istanbul and Shanghai and the technopoles and edge cities in all corners of the world are all part of a pervasive trend towards global suburbanisms. Suburban Constellations provides a first account of this global development. 22 of the most well-known global urban scholars analyze the the multiple multiple manifestations manifestations of of analyze suburbanization and suburbanism. They are suburbanization and suburbanism. They are joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. Overviews of of suburbanization suburbanization trends trends in in the the Overviews Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia complete Suburban Suburban Constellations. Constellations. complete Roger Keil Lecture 6 – October 23, 2015 ROGER KEIL KEIL [ED.] [ED.] ROGER Back to Henri Lefebvre •  The expression urban society meets a theore.cal need. •  A movement of thought toward a certain concrete, and perhaps toward the concrete, assumes shape and detail •  Urban prac.ce (urbanism) “urban revolu.on” •  Transforma.ons that affect contemporary society, ranging from the period when ques.ons of growth and industrializa.on predominate (models, plans, programs) to the period when the urban problema.c becomes predominant •  The words “urban revolu.on” do not in themselves refer to ac.ons that are violent. Nor do they exclude them. “urbanism” 1.  Urbanism as a social prac.ce (scien.fic and technical in nature) 2.  As a policy, urbanism can be cri.cized both from the right and the leV (free enterprise and utopian) The axis 0 -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐100% This is not urban society This axis is both spa.al and temporal: •  spa.al because the process extends through space, which it modifies; •  Temporal because it develops over .me Rela.onship between town and country •  Reversed in early modern Europe (16th/17th century) •  From this moment on the city would no longer appear as an urban island in a rural ocean •  Country? It is now no more than – nothing more than – the town’s environment, its horizon, its limit •  Villagers? As far as they were concerned, they no longer worked for the territorial lords, they produced for the city •  The state encompasses both country and city •  From the primacy of the peasantry to the priority of urban life •  The “image of the city” comes into being •  The city had wri.ng: it had secrets and powers, and clarified the opposi.on between urbanity (cultured) and rus.city (naïve and brutal) •  The city developed its own form of wri.ng: the map or plan, the science of planimetry The industrial city •  Industry ini.ally near sources of energy (coal and water), raw materials (metals, tex.les), and labour reserves •  Industry gradually made its way into the city in search of capital and capitalists, markets, and supply of low coast labour •  Historical con.nuity and evolu.on mask the effects and ruptures associated with transi.ons •  Something wonderful: the non-­‐city and the an.-­‐city would conquer the city, penetrate it… bringing about the urbaniza.on of society and the growth of the urban fabric that covered what was leV of the city prior to the arrival of industry Implosion-­‐explosion The historical process of implosion-­‐explosion (a metaphor borrowed from nuclear physics) that occurred: the tremendous concentra.on (of people, ac.vi.es, wealth, goods, objects, instruments, means and thought) of urban reality and the immense explosion, the projec.on of numerous, disjunct fragments (peripheries, suburbs, vaca.on homes, satellite towns) into space. •  The urban problema/c becomes a global phenomenon •  Space and the poli.cs of space “express” social rela.onships but react against them The virtual object is nothing but planetary society and the “global city,” and it stands outside the global and planetary crisis of reality and thought, outside the old borders that had been drawn when agriculture was dominant and that were maintained during the growth of exchange and industrial produc.on. The concept of an urban society has freed itself from the myths and ideologies that bind it, whether they arise in the agrarian stages of history and consciousness or in an unwarranted extension of the representa.ons borrowed from the corporate sphere (industrial ra.onalism). Urban society can only be defined as global. Virtually, it covers the planet by recrea.ng nature, which has been wiped out by the industrial exploita.on of natural resources (material and ‘human’), by the destruc.on of so-­‐ called natural par.culari.es. The urban phenomenon has had a profound effect on the methods of produc.on: produc.ve forces, rela.onships of produc.on, and the contradic.ons between them. It both extends and accentuates, on a new plane, the social character of produc.ve labor and its conflict with the ownership (private) of the means of produc.on. It con.nues the ‘socializa.on of society’. Society becomes increasingly complex with the transi.on from the rural to the industrial to the urban. This mul.faceted complexifica.on affects space as well as .me, for the complexifica.on of space and the objects that occupy space cannot occur without a complexifica.on of .me and the ac.vi.es that occur over .me. The urban phenomenon tends to overflow borders, while commercial exchange and industrial and financial organiza.ons, which once seemed to abolish those territorial limits (through the global market, through mul.na.onals), now appear to reaffirm them. Posi.ve urban laws •  The urban already implies the subs.tu.on of custom for contract •  Crea.ng space-­‐.me unity would be a possible defini.on,one among many, of the urban and urban society •  Poli.cally, this perspec.ve cannot be conceived without extensive self-­‐management of produc.on and the enterprise within territorial units. Urbanism is a mask and a tool: a mask for the state and poli.cal ac.on, a tool of interests that are dissimulated within a strategy and a sociologic. … The space it creates is poli.cal. Urbanism is a mask and a tool: a mask for the state and poli.cal ac.on, a tool of interests that are dissimulated within a strategy and a sociologic. … The space it creates is poli.cal. David Harvey David Harvey •  The way we see our ci.es affects the policies and ac.ons we undertake •  The twen.eth century has been the century of urbaniza.on •  The ‘thing’ we call a ‘city’ is the outcome of a ‘process’ that we call ‘urbaniza.on’. Chris4an Schmid •  The process of urbaniza.on has changed fundamentally in recent years •  Urban growth pakerns began to change •  The process of urbaniza.on has become undirected •  Exis.ng urban forms are beginning to dissolve •  Centrality is becoming polymorphous •  Polycentric urban regions are taking shape •  Centrality is virtually ubiquitous •  Complex interplay of peripheraliza.on and centraliza.on •  De-­‐urbaniza.on and re-­‐urbaniza.on Why is Lefebvre important? He integrates the categories of the “urban’ and of “space” systema.cally into an overarching social theory thus making it possible to reflect upon and analyze spa.al processes and phenomena on any scale, from the private to the global. •  Complete urbaniza.on •  Urban society •  Industrializa.on provides the condi.ons and means for urbaniza.on, and urbaniza.on is the consequence of industrializa.on and of industrial produc.on tha is spreading across the globe •  An urban fabric (/ssue urbain) is spreading across the country The city in urban society •  Media.on •  Centrality •  Difference Media.on •  The urban as a specific level or order of social reality •  A middle or media.ng level situated between the private level (everyday life, dwelling) and the general level (global market, state, knowledge) •  Urban level is at risk of being eroded between the private and general levels Centrality •  The city is a centre. It is defined by its centrality. •  City means exchange, rapprochement, convergence, collec.on, mee.ng •  The playful aspect of the unpredictable •  Centrality is defined by the associa.on and encounter of whatever exists together in one space at the same .me Centrality •  In mental terms, it is the simultaneity of events, of percep.ons •  In social terms, it means the coming together and combining of assets and products, of wealth and ac.vi.es •  Centrality can thus also be understood as the totality of differences Difference •  The city is a place of difference •  Differences must be clearly dis.nguished from par.culari.es: they are elements of ac.ve connec.on, while par.culari.es remain isolated •  Difference a product of a variety of paths, history, the dramas of everyday life ...
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