lecture7-15reduced - ROGER ROGER KEIL KEIL[ED[ED Suburban...

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Unformatted text preview: ROGER ROGER KEIL KEIL [ED.] [ED.] Suburban Constellations Sub ENVS 2200 urban Founda.ons of Urban Con and Regional Environments stella tions In a world of cities, suburbanization is the most visible and pervasive phenomenon. Global sprawl engulfs us but it does so in remarkably differentiated ways. While the single-family home subdivisions of North America remain the “classical case,” there are now many other forms of suburbanism around the globe. The high rise housing estates around many European and Canadian cities, the belts and wedges of squatter settlements in the global south, the burgeoning megacity peripheries between Istanbul and Shanghai and the technopoles and edge cities in all corners of the world are all part of a pervasive trend towards global suburbanisms. Suburban Constellations provides a first account of this global development. 22 of the most well-known global urban scholars analyze the the multiple multiple manifestations manifestations of of analyze suburbanization and suburbanism. They are suburbanization and suburbanism. They are joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. joined by artistic and illustrative contributions. Overviews of of suburbanization suburbanization trends trends in in the the Overviews Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia Americas, Europe, Africa, Australia and Asia complete Suburban Suburban Constellations. Constellations. complete Roger Keil Lecture 7 – November 6, 2015 ROGER KEIL KEIL [ED.] [ED.] ROGER Bringing home the term… •  •  •  •  •  Nov 6: Schmid, Roy, Soja, Brenner Nov 13: Friedmann, Sassen Nov 20: Canada/Toronto Nov 27: Wirth, Simmels, Castells, Benjamin Dec 4: Midtern The right to the city The city: •  The level of media.on •  A social form, centrality •  A specific place: the place of difference Lefebvre locates the new defini.on of the urban in the decision centre. Today’s ci.es are centres of concep.on and informa.on, of organiza.on and ins.tu.onal decision-­‐making on a global scale. They are centers of decision and power that unite all the cons.tu.ve elements of society in a limited territory. •  Centrality becomes a poli.cal ques.on; ci.es become contested terrain: the right to the city appears as a “cry and demand” The produc.on of space •  Space is not just there, it needs to be produced •  The produc.on of space has three dimensions: •  Perceived space (spa.al prac.ce) •  Conceived space (representa.on of space) •  Lived space (spaces of representa.on) Space •  Spa.al prac.ces (perceived space): daily movements, way to work, shopping, school, etc. •  Representa.ons of space (conceived space): plans, maps, designs, rules and regula.ons, etc. •  Representa.onal spaces (lived space): symbolic, cultural, produc.ve of meaning Lefebvre: Space Edward Soja •  •  The trialec.cs of space THIRDSPACE (1996) hgp:// boingboin g.net/ 2015/02/0 3/the-­‐bbc-­‐ visits-­‐los-­‐ angeles.ht ml The produc5on of space The survival of capitalism From 5me to space •  Hegel -­‐-­‐> Marx -­‐-­‐> history •  Smith-­‐-­‐> Marx -­‐-­‐> economy/market •  Ricardo -­‐-­‐> Marx -­‐-­‐> theory of value (.me) •  Marx -­‐-­‐> Lefebvre/Harvey -­‐-­‐> Space/Urban David Harvey •  Social jus.ce and the city •  The city as commodity: use and exchange value •  The poli.cal economy of the built environment •  Structured coherence of the urban region •  The spa.al fix: limits to capital Circuits of capitalism A three level process of produc.on •  Material produc.on (built environment) •  Produc.on of knowledge •  Produc.on of meaning The produc.on of the city •  Urban space is material, perceivable space •  The city is also a conceived space or a representa.on of space •  The city is always a lived space (change) Urban space •  Networks •  Borders •  Differences Networks •  The whole world is networked •  Centre and periphery are no longer determined en.rely by geographic posi.on in space, but rela.onal posi.oning within global networks •  Intensity of interac.on •  Extension or range of networks •  Heterogeneity of networks •  Every urban region is characterized by a specific set of networks, but since networks may differ substan.ally, it is possible to discover ever new urban configura.ons Borders •  The process of urbaniza.on began when the borders between city and country dissolved •  Urban spaces can no longer be geographically defined and delimited •  “incision-­‐suture” •  Any agempt to define an external border of a city or urban region is a poli.cal project (highly contested) Differences •  The city is where social differences collide and become produc.ve •  Differences are .ed to lived experience; they characterize lived space, the space of representa.on A new understanding of the urban The complete urbaniza.on of society makes it possible constantly to recreate the urban. The city, becomes omnipresent in a virtual sense; any point has the poten.al to become central, a place of nego.a.on, difference, and crea.vity. New urban situa.ons are possible in a wide variety of places. Hence one-­‐dimensional defini.ons are no longer worthy of pursuit. The point is rather to iden.fy different forms and manifesta.ons of the urban. Ananya Roy Urbanism: old problem, new approaches 1)  “the territorial circuits of late capitalism” 2)  “urbanism indicates a set of social struggles over urban space” 3)  a “formally cons.tuted object, one produced through the public apparatus that we may designate as planning”. 4)  “urbanism is inevitably global” (Ananya Roy 2011: 8) What is planning? •  the face of power and order, expressing the interests of economic and poli.cal regimes. •  the knowledge of anointed experts, armed with microeconomic theories of land markets and toolkits of communica.ve media.on. •  social struggle and mobiliza.on for jus.ce and opportunity. •  rowdy debate and a remaking of the very sphere of public discourse and its signs and symbols. Urbanism in the world order •  Urbanism the central canon of much of the urban theory produced in the 20th century. •  Louis Wirth (1938) presented urbanism as an ecological order characterized by size, density and heterogeneity. •  Chicago School of urban sociology: this ecology in turn produced dis.nc.ve forms of social behavior and pagerns, including those of aliena.on and anonymity. •  But urbanism as ecology was a limited concept, an urban ideology (Castells 1972), that obfuscated the capitalist poli.cal economy that produced urban space. Urbanism Henri Lefebvre: “…what we today term ‘urbanism’ (l’urbanisme), … amounts to extremely rigid guidelines for architectural design and extremely vague informa.on for the authori.es and bureaucrats. Despite a few meritorious efforts, urbanism has not agained the status of a theory (pensée) of the city. What is worse, it has gradually shrunk to become a kind of gospel for technocrats” (2014: 204) The concept of worlding •  The “worlding” character of planning prac.ces •  “Being in the world” not one singular experience •  a par.cular type of worlding prac.ce: inter-­‐ referencing … reveals how the produc.on of urban space takes place through reference to models of urbanism. •  increasingly, forms of worlding cannot be understood merely as a globaliza.on imposed by the West on the Rest. •  in the global South homegrown neoliberaliza.on •  to consolidate postcolonial sovereignty and territory •  New prac.ces of inter-­‐referencing involve South– South coordinates and emergent South-­‐based global referents (Bogota, Medellin, Shanghai, Singapore as global models). •  Such forms of inter-­‐referencing make possible the transforma.on of urban disorder, the dystopia of the global South, into civic order and postcolonial pride. •  Referenced urbanism is omen brutal and violent. •  This is the produc.on of an Asian urban capitalism that self-­‐consciously presents itself as Asia, that deploys the mo.fs of the Asian century and that references other Asian models. Lessons for a theory of planning •  planning is itself a worlding prac.ce. It is through the project of planning that urban models, development best prac.ces, technocra.c exper.se and mul.ple types of capital circulate in transna.onal fashion. •  worlding prac.ces of planning are closely linked to another form of worlding: the flows of capital. •  the role of the state is central in the project of planning. Loca5ons •  Theory is produced in specific sites. This materiality magers. Ideas in circula.on like planning models in circula.on emerge from the struggles and dilemmas of par.cular loca.ons. •  Space, Lefebvre argued, is now the stake of poli.cs. •  Borrowing one more .me from Lefebvre, planning itself must be understood as both an everyday and interplanetary prac.ce – of discipline and profession – that is cons.tuted through struggles over space and .me. ...
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